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America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World

America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World

CBS' 60 Minutes program of 9/15/02: KENNEWICK MAN -- the discovery of a 9000-year-old skeleton - not only seriously questions the notion that Indians inhabited America first but is causing an old-fashioned science-versus-religion battle. While scientists are fighting for the right to study the bones Indians say their religion requires they be buried immediately - so reports 60 Minutes' Lesley Stahl ... America B.C.(Barry Fell) was uncovering this some 27 years ago! When Barry Fell's AMERICA B.C. first exploded on the literary scene it was acclaimed by critics as" ...The first major work to penetrate the mysteries of ancient European inhabitants in America" and its support has grown even stronger over the years. It has long been taken for granted that the first European visitors to American shores either sailed with Columbus in 1492 or with Norseman like Lief Erickson a full five centuries earlier.

Hardcover: 312 pages
Publisher: Times Books (November 19,1976)

Life, Space and Time: A course in Environmental Biology Life, Space and Time: A course in Environmental Biology

Life, Space and Time: A course in Environmental Biology Life, Space and Time: A course in Environmental Biology

A text dealing with the environments of the world.

Hardcover: 417 pages
Publisher: Harper & Row; 1st Edition (January 1, 1974)

Bronze Age America Bronze Age America

Bronze Age America Bronze Age America

Based on recent archaeological discoveries, this study explores the theory that Bronze-Age Swedes visited North America around the St. Lawrence River and that some Nordics migrated west, intermarrying with the Dakota tribes to form the Sioux nation.

Hardcover: 304 pages
Publisher: Little Brown & Co; 1st edition (June 1, 1982)

The Urantia Book The Urantia Book
The Urantia Book The Urantia Book

Love

Love is truly contagious and eternally creative. (p. 2018) “Devote your life to proving that love is the greatest thing in the world.” (p. 2047) “Love is the ancestor of all spiritual goodness, the essence of the true and the beautiful.” (p. 2047) The Father’s love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man’s personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows. (p. 1289) The secret of a better civilization is bound up in the Master’s teachings of the brotherhood of man, the good will of love and mutual trust. (p. 2065)

Prayer

Prayer is not a technique of escape from conflict but rather a stimulus to growth in the very face of conflict. (p. 1002) The sincerity of any prayer is the assurance of its being heard. … (p. 1639) God answers man’s prayer by giving him an increased revelation of truth, an enhanced appreciation of beauty, and an augmented concept of goodness. (p. 1002) …Never forget that the sincere prayer of faith is a mighty force for the promotion of personal happiness, individual self-control, social harmony, moral progress, and spiritual attainment. (p. 999)

Suffering

There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. (p. 364) Mortals only learn wisdom by experiencing tribulation. (p. 556)

Angels

The angels of all orders are distinct personalities and are highly individualized. (p. 285) Angels....are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them. (p. 419)

Our Divine Destiny

If you are a willing learner, if you want to attain spirit levels and reach divine heights, if you sincerely desire to reach the eternal goal, then the divine Spirit will gently and lovingly lead you along the pathway of sonship and spiritual progress. (p. 381) …They who know that God is enthroned in the human heart are destined to become like him—immortal. (p. 1449) God is not only the determiner of destiny; he is man’s eternal destination. (p. 67)

Family

Almost everything of lasting value in civilization has its roots in the family. (p. 765) The family is man’s greatest purely human achievement. ... (p. 939)

Faith

…Faith will expand the mind, ennoble the soul, reinforce the personality, augment the happiness, deepen the spirit perception, and enhance the power to love and be loved. (p. 1766) “Now, mistake not, my Father will ever respond to the faintest flicker of faith.” (p. 1733)

History/Science

The story of man’s ascent from seaweed to the lordship of earthly creation is indeed a romance of biologic struggle and mind survival. (p. 731) 2,500,000,000 years ago… Urantia was a well developed sphere about one tenth its present mass. … (p. 658) 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of Urantia [Earth] history. (p. 660) 450,000,000 years ago the transition from vegetable to animal life occurred. (p. 669) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years. (p. 707) About five hundred thousand years ago…there were almost one-half billion primitive human beings on earth. … (p. 741) Adam and Eve arrived on Urantia, from the year A.D. 1934, 37,848 years ago. (p. 828)

From the Inside Flap

What’s Inside?

Parts I and II

God, the inhabited universes, life after death, angels and other beings, the war in heaven.

Part III

The history of the world, science and evolution, Adam and Eve, development of civilization, marriage and family, personal spiritual growth.

Part IV

The life and teachings of Jesus including the missing years. AND MUCH MORE…

Excerpts

God, …God is the source and destiny of all that is good and beautiful and true. (p. 1431) If you truly want to find God, that desire is in itself evidence that you have already found him. (p. 1440) When man goes in partnership with God, great things may, and do, happen. (p. 1467)

The Origin of Human Life, The universe is not an accident... (p. 53) The universe of universes is the work of God and the dwelling place of his diverse creatures. (p. 21) The evolutionary planets are the spheres of human origin…Urantia [Earth] is your starting point. … (p. 1225) In God, man lives, moves, and has his being. (p. 22)

The Purpose of Life, There is in the mind of God a plan which embraces every creature of all his vast domains, and this plan is an eternal purpose of boundless opportunity, unlimited progress, and endless life. (p. 365) This new gospel of the kingdom… presents a new and exalted goal of destiny, a supreme life purpose. (p. 1778)

Jesus, The religion of Jesus is the most dynamic influence ever to activate the human race. (p. 1091) What an awakening the world would experience if it could only see Jesus as he really lived on earth and know, firsthand, his life-giving teachings! (p. 2083)

Science, Science, guided by wisdom, may become man’s great social liberator. (p. 909) Mortal man is not an evolutionary accident. There is a precise system, a universal law, which determines the unfolding of the planetary life plan on the spheres of space. (p. 560)

Life after Death, God’s love is universal… He is “not willing that any should perish.” (p. 39) Your short sojourn on Urantia [Earth]…is only a single link, the very first in the long chain that is to stretch across universes and through the eternal ages. (p. 435) …Death is only the beginning of an endless career of adventure, an everlasting life of anticipation, an eternal voyage of discovery. (p. 159)

About the Author

The text of The Urantia Book was provided by one or more anonymous contributors working with a small staff which provided editorial and administrative support during the book's creation. The book bears no particular credentials (from a human viewpoint), relying instead on the power and beauty of the writing itself to persuade the reader of its authenticity.

Leather Bound: 2097 pages
Publisher: Urantia Foundation; Box Lea edition (August 25, 2015)

Saga America Saga America

Saga America Saga America

Dr. Barry Fell, an Emeritus Professor at Harvard, documents trans-Atlantic Old World incursions into America with much fresh evidence of Libyan, Carthaginian, Celtic, Greek, Roman, and Viking presences on the east coast. But even more extraordinary is his documentation of Pre-Columbian Europeans in the far west. B&W illustrations and photographs.

Hardcover: 425 pages
Publisher: Times Books; 1st edition (July 1, 1980)

All That Remains All That Remains

All That Remains All That Remains

A West Virginia Archaeologist's Discoveries

Paperback: 79 pages
Publisher: Cannon Graphics; First Edition (June 1, 1991)

America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World, Revised Edition America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World, Revised Edition

America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World, Revised Edition America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World, Revised Edition

Presents evidence indicating the early settlement of regions of North America by Celts, Iberians, Basques, Phoenicians, Libyans, and Egyptians

Paperback: 352 pages
Publisher: Pocket; Revised edition (June 1, 1989)


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European Bronze Age Visitors In America

by
Dr. Erich Fred Legner
from
Discoveries In Natural History & Exploration
Pre-Columbian Explorations to America

Note from the University of California, Riverside (UCR) website:

This site is a not-for-profit database whose mission is to facilitate the dissemination, and generation of historical knowledge related to human exploration and migration. Particular emphasis is placed on published accounts describing prehistoric interactions of peoples of the Old World with those of the Americas. Constructive criticisms of theories are included in an effort to extend the arguments in a worldwide forum. The material included is not part of the formal Archeology curriculum in The University of California.

Photographs before 1955 were taken with an Argus camera; thereafter either with a Zeiss Icon or Nikon digital camera, unless otherwise noted. The ancient originators of the art shown herein are posthumously respectfully acknowledged.



Mystery Hill New Hampshire
The ruins at Stonehenge (Mystery Hill), New Hampshire

The ruins at Stonehenge (Mystery Hill), New Hampshire

Summary of Discoveries of Dr. Barry & René Fell


NOTE: "Old Norse" and "Old Gaelic" as used by Fell may be equivalent to a Northern dialect of the Saharan language as discussed by Nyland, and most of the inscriptions in this section may also be transcribed with the Ogam/Igbo Dictionary: see Catherine Acholonu.




Introduction

As of January 2020 there have been few implements found in the Americas that date from the Bronze Age (Please see Discussion). Nevertheless, there is considerable evidence of a voyage or voyages of a Bronze Age Scandinavian king, Woden-lithi, to North America around 1700 B.C. from texts found inscribed in the rocks at Peterborough, Ontario, Canada (Figs. 18 & 19 & MAP), and other North American sites. These texts, written in Teutonic and Norse tongues, used alphabets that have survived to the present in remote parts of the world. However, in Europe Roman script became the predominant alphabet around the time of Christ as part of the general occupation. They support the belief that Europeans during the Bronze Age were literate, educated people. Harvard Professor Barry Fell (1982) has attempted to translate the inscriptions to about October 2000. Expected widespread criticism of such new ideas flooded the archeological world (see Comments). Yet by the year 2005 there has emerged a revolution in American prehistory that may finally remove antiquated biases and enable concerted efforts at learning and dispelling myths about colonization in America (please refer to Nyland's accounts). The evidence points to the certainty that European colonists and traders have been visiting or settling in the Americas for thousands of years, have introduced their scripts, artifacts, and skills, and have exported abroad American products such as copper and furs. The voyages occurred just as the Iron Age was beginning, so that the explorers might have brought with them implements of iron instead of bronze (see Fig. 114), and most could have eventually rusted away.


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Fig. 18

General view of part of the site near Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. The area visible includes the central sighting point of the ain sun-god figure and part of the east-facing slope. The more conspicuous markings have been delineated with a black wax crayon applied by personnel at the site.

Stressed are the larger elements added later by Algonquin artists. Most of the finer Tifinag letters are not marked by crayon. A detailed plan may be found in Joan M. & Romas K. Vastokas, 1973, Mansard Press (Fell 1982).


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Fig. 19

Detail at the Peterborough, Ontario site, ca. 20 ft. NW of the main sun figure, showing (above) part of a sea battle. Tifinag letters are marked in black crayon (Fell 1982).



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Fig. 114

A Norse iron battle-axe discovered at Rocky Neck, near Gloucester, on the coast of Massachusetts (Goodwin Collection, Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hartford, CT). The Tifinag inscription shows that it was a royal award given to battle veterans and widows of warriors killed in battle (Fell 1982).

The inscription reads: L-A-N S-M E-K-M, M-M S-M E-L = Lae sami ekjum emum, sami eli ("Royal award for the honor of battle widows, and for the honor of old age.") (Fell 1982). If this implement could be dated to the time of the late Bronze Age, it would account for the absence of bronze utensils in early America.


Edo Nyland has examined the  Peterborough petroglyphs and especially what Barry Fell considered Ogam, but he failed to see Ogam writing in it. Nyland considered that Fell took some isolated characters that look like Ogam, then assigned English letters to it, but none are connected into a sentence. If one looks at the Ogam inscriptions that Nyland works with, you see that they form a series of connected characters, a lineup of them, but that's not what Fell found. Furthermore, Nyland thought that Fell was using Gaelic to translate but Gaelic did not exist until about 700 AD. The early Gnostics used Basque exclusively. Nyland wishes that he could be more positive about Fell's work. As far as he can see his true strength is in transliteration, not translation. Indeed, Fell may have believed he was viewing an early form of Ogam when indeed it was an early form of Norse. Regardless of the terminology, Fell's translations appear to be accurate, as indeed Nyland accepted.

According to Fell, Woden-lithi's main purpose for visiting America was apparently to barter textiles with the Algonquian Indians in return for metallic copper ingots (Fell 1982). He left a detailed record of his visit at Peterborough where he established a permanent-trading colony. To critics who argued that there was no writing among the Scandinavians until about the time of Christ, Fell (1982) pointed to two alphabets as shown in Fig. 1. One alphabet, "ogam consaine" was employed by the ancient peoples of Ireland and Scotland (often referred to as Celts—see Celts). They were recorded and explained in detail by Irish monks during the Middle Ages. A detailed description of this writing was given in Barry Fell's books America BC and Saga America. The other alphabet, called "Tifinag", is the special way of writing of the Tuaregs, a race of Berbers living in the Atlas Mountains of North Africa. Both ogam consain and Tifinag use only consonants in nearly all words, leaving the vowels to be inferred, as do writers of Hebrew, Arabic and other ancient scripts. Sometimes, where doubt may exist as to the word intended, a vowel sign is added, or a pictograph, to help recognize the word (Fell 1982). [Ogam Script details]


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Fig. 1

Comparisons of two forms of ogam: “consain” and “fringe.”


It is apparent from evidence provided in the following text that Bronze Age Irish and Norsemen colonists in America showed strong feelings about their pagan gods and the power that they had over daily events. Therefore, the numerous inscriptions found in America on rocks, implements and bone regularly connected these gods with whatever the people were trying to show, whether it be gathering wool from wild sheep or recounting their travels. With his wide knowledge about Bronze Age mythology and religions in Europe, Professor Fell noted close similarities in the American inscriptions. He interpreted these as cultural extensions from Europe, following colonization by explorers crossing the Atlantic in ancient times. (Pleases refer to Figs. 20, 21, 22, 23, & 24 for more illustrations to this section). As of 2005, we have come to recognize the ancient language as Saharan from which all other Indo-European languages were derived.


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Fig. 20

International friendship in the Bronze Age.

This Norse rebus in Tifnag script lies 14 ft. southeast-by-east of the main sun-god figure at Peterborough, Ontario. It reads Wal wina wawa kogha (Old Norse Val vinnr vafa kogga = "A foreign friend waves to the ship"). The foreign friend would be an Algonquian Indian, probably of the Ojibwa tribe. They were trading copper ingots from the Lake Superior mines for cloth from Scandinavian looms. The inscription may be read, with the same meaning, if it be considered an Anglo-Saxon dialect (Fell 1982).


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Fig. 21

King Woden-lithi's artists at Peterborough, Ontario carved different kinds of vessels in the rocks. The types include Nokve (n-gh-w), cogs (k-gh) = "longships, and (L-gn) (Fell 1982).


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Fig. 22

The Peterborough, Ontario rock carvings depict what the Nordic visitors saw in America. They read in Old Norse as follows:

W-A-L (hval = whale)

M-TH-R (Madhr = man: an Algonquin)

W-L U-L-W (val ulf = foreign wolf)

The whale lies 18 ft SW of the main sun-god figure; the man is just to the left of the sun god, and the wolf 12 ft to the SW of the sun god. Retrograde writing direction is used. The wolf is a rebus, thus his legs are shown separated from his body. (Fell 1982).


Before leaving Canada for his home in Norway, King Woden-lithi had engraved the following landmark in the history of American commerce and scientific measurement at the Peterborough, Ontario site (Fell 1982):

"THE KING LEAVES BEHIND THESE REPEATED MARKS CORRECTLY CUT FOR DETERMINING AND COUNTING THE ELL"

It lies 18 ft. east of the sun god. The Scandinavian alen, or ell, was a unit of length, the length of the forearm (Old Norse oln) from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. It was ca. 18 inches long, varying somewhat in different countries. These marks are the oldest known standard of measurement for any Nordic land. In later ages the ell came to signify ca. 45 in.

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Fig. 23

The words read as follows:
M-L = mal (measurement)
K-U-N-N-GH = Konungr (King)
L-W = lav (leave behind)
K-L-F = klfa (repeated)
M-R-K = merki (marks)
L-K = laki (correct position)
A-K = aka (determine)
R-GN = regna (to reckon)
L-N = aln, oln (the ell, ca 18 in.)
H-GH = hugga (cut, hack)


BEWARE! ROCK OF THE LAWS
Place of Assembly for the Priests


An ancient public notice engraved in 12-in Tifinag letters at the northeastern extremity of the Peterborough, Ontario site, probably the original point of entry. The letters are consonants only, yet their concatenation is an astonishing repetition of the technical legal terms known to have been used in Iceland in Viking times, ca. 2,000 years after King Woden-lithi. In Iceland, also, in pagan times there was an annual assembly of the priests. it was called Samthingis-Godhar. In Woden-lithi's dialect the ancient Nordic speech there was more aspiration: g was gh, and ng was gn. d was apparently always pronounced as dh = the sound of "th" in the English word "this."

Both in ancient Iceland and Scandinavia, there was an annual meeting of the pagan priestsat which the laws were declaimed by a law-speaker. The place at which this ceremony was held was called the Lög-Berg, or Hill of the Law. At Peterborough in America, the site selected was a flat rock platform. The ancient Norse word hella means a flat rock. Therefore, evidently the ancient name of the Peterborough site was Lögh-Hella, which could be pronounced in Englishtoday roughly as if it were spelled "Lurg-hella."

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Fig. 24

The following text reconsiders the detailed account by Professor Barry Fell in Bronze Age America, 1982,.with new knowledge accumulated since its publication. Although Fell's reference to Celts often includes peoples of both Ireland and Scotland, I have generally used the word Ancient Irish for both (Please see Celts).

The Bronze Age Alphabets

These alphabets enable an examination of the famous Bronze Age sites where rock-cut inscriptions are preserved. One famous site occurs at Hjulatorp, Sweden, the name meaning "Wheel Village." There exist numerous Neolithic or early Bronze Age rock carvings that resemble chariot wheels and others that look like disks or globes (Figs. 3). Fell (1982) discussed the significance of this site as follows:

Examine the fernlike inscription on the lower part of the rock face, beneath some circular carvings. There is little difficulty in recognizing this as ogam consain, and that the letters are as shown on Fig 3. They spell K-UI-G-L, which, as all Norse- and German-speaking readers will immediately recognize, is just an archaic way of spelling the general Teutonic root that means a ball or globe. Glance now to the upper right, where, beside the same circular images, we now find a series of engraved dots that match letters in the Tifinag alphabet. The letters are, as shown in Fig. 4, K-G-L--, again, just an archaic rendering of the same word, this time in a different alphabet. There are more of the Tifinag letters. Look at the chariot wheels ..." in Fig. 5. "Beneath them are letters that spell W-H-L-A, obviously an archaic spelling of the Old Norse <= Saharan?> word for wheel. Farther to the right we find a Tifinag word spelling K-L. Now the writer of that last word may have been an ancient Swede, already casting out from his pronunciation of kugl that internal g, for whereas Danes and Germans retain the internal consonant, the Swedes now spell and pronounce kugl as kula.


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Fig. 3

Figures of the sun globe at Hjulatorp, Sweden. This part of the ancient inscription is written in ogam consaine (K-UI-G-L = "globe) and Tifnag (A-K-A = "drives). The statement seems to indicate that the globe of the sun god drives across the sky in a chariot. Other similar texts refer to the sun and the moon as sailing sky ships. The language is an archaic form of Old Norse (Fell 1982). Also see <Fig. 4> & <Fig. 5>


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Fig. 4

The Old Norse text continues on the right of the Hjulatorp inscription, designating on the stone in Tifnag letters T-A K-GH-L = Tá kughla = "The path of the [sun's] globe." A relic of the still older Neolithic hieroglyphic script persists in the ideogram of a pair of shoe-prints, representing the word  ("path"). Therefore, the Hjulatorp inscription as a whole has reference to the path of the sun across the sky, and was probably the site of a calendar-regulation observatory (Fell 1982).


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Fig. 5

The inscription at Hjulatorp, Sweden continues with these elements to the right of those shown previously. The archaic Norse word for wheel appears beside what is evidently a chariot wheel, and below another disk K-L, presumably the dialectal shortening of kugl, a globe (Fell 1982).


But, it may appear, there is not supposed to be any writing at all on these Bronze Age monuments!  Well, that was not Fell's opinion, and he suspected that  it would begin to occur to the reader that perhaps our earlier ideas may have erred on these matters. Now let us take a look at another Bronze Age carving, first recorded by Dr. G. Halldin in the 1949 volume of the yearbook published by the Swedish Sjöfartsmuseum. It shows a ship of the characteristic Bronze Age form, with the keel projecting fore and aft below the upward-turned bow and stern pieces. Along the upper and lower borders of the....ship (Fig. 6a) we see two lines of Tifinag letters, and a third line curves around the lower edge of the rock slab. In the Bronze Age (and also among the Berbers in modern times), when two or more lines of text occur, they are read as if they were a continuous "tape:": that is, with each line alternating in direction, so that no break occurs in the line of symbols. Here we read the top line from left to right, the next line from right to left. The letters prove to be K-GH H-W-L. Now take a glance at an American rock inscription, also depicting ships of the Bronze Age type  (Fig. 6b). This particular carving, at Peterborough, Ontario, can be visited easily by Canadians living in that area, As can be seen, the letters K-GH occur at the beginning of the first line, too, which also is to be read from the left to right, just as in the Swedish example. Reference to any Old Norse <= Saharan?> or Old Icelandic dictionary will disclose that kuggr, often anglicized in Viking times as cog, is an Old Norse word meaning a seagoing trading ship. On the Swedish example the next word, H-WL, can readily be recognized, since it still occurs in all Norse tongues, as meaning whale, or, in the older sense, any sea monster or leviathan. Thus the Swedish example is telling us that the monument is dedicated to "The seagoing ship Leviathan." As for the Canadian examples, merely note that kuggr is only one of several Old Norse words for ships that we find represented by Tifinag letters beside carvings of Bronze Age ships.


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Fig. 6a

Detail from a Bronze Age ship Petroglyph originally published by the Sjöfartsmuseum (Halldin 1941).  The Tifnag inscription reads clockwise to yield an archaic Nordic text matching Old Norse kogge hval, while the large letters BR area relic of late Neolithic hieroglyphs depicting a buckler, bukla, and a ring, hringr. Thus, the first of which became the Tifinag letters, were originally to bead as a punning simulation of words meaning, "thrust out [to sea] at launching." Thus, Fell (1982) believed that the whole inscription is probably a memorial to the launching of the seagoing ship Leviathan.


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Fig. 6b

Detail from a Bronze Age ship Petroglyph (Halldin 1941). The Tifnag inscription reads clockwise to yield and archaic Nordic text matching Old Norse kogge hval, while the large letters BR are a relic of late Neolithic hieroglyphs depicting a buckler, bukla, and a ring, hringr; these, the first of what became the Tifnag letters, were originally to be read as a punning simulation of words meaning "thrust out [to sea] at launching."  Thus, the whole inscription is probably a memorial to the launching of the seagoing ship Leviathan (Fell 1982).


Returning to Sweden, we now visit at Backa, Brastad, another site, considered by Swedish archaeologists, to be Neolithic (around 2000 BC). The word baca does not occur in modern speech, but in Old Norse <= Saharan?> it meant, according to the Oxford Dictionary of  Old Icelandic, "a kind of blunt-headed arrow." The rock inscription that occurs at Baca depicts just such a blunt-headed arrow, together with an image of the sun god and human figure, apparently dead, plus some letters of the Tifinag alphabet (Fig. 7). These, if read from right to left, yield the words S-L B-K-S, solbakkas, translating as "of the sun's blunt arrow." The precise reference may be obscure, but it seems clear enough that the letters are indeed Tifinag, and that the subject under discussion is indeed the blunt arrow that is depicted below the letters and that gave its name to the place where the inscription occurs.


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Fig. 7

Inscription at Baca, Brasted, Sweden. The Tifnag letters spell out the name of the depicted "blunt arrow," which may have been a religious solar concept (Fell 1982).


The examples cited so far come from the eastern parts of Sweden and comprise very simple texts, using only a few letters of the Tifinag alphabet. If we transfer our attention to the rock inscriptions found on the southwest coast of Sweden, immediately adjacent to Oslo Fjord and along the strip of coast to the north of Göteborg, we find much more extensive and varied inscriptions at localities in the Bohuslän region. Here the texts are longer and more interesting and, in many cases, they show the same obvious relationship to the accompanying carvings of men, animals, and ships. What have hitherto been incomprehensible "lines of dots" now assume quite clearly and unmistakably the character of commentaries in a very ancient kind of Norse language that was evidently spoken during the Bronze Age. Since there was at that time no differentiation of the ancestors of the future Angles and Saxons from the general stock of Teutonic speakers that later gave rise to the tribes that spread from Denmark to England, herein shall be used the terms Norse and Ancient Norse for the language that is represented in these Bronze Age inscriptions. it was Fell's impression that English, German, and other Teutonic languages, including the Norse or Scandinavian tongues, may all be traced back to the Bronze Age dialect that is the subject of this account.

The inscriptions in western Sweden seem to fall broadly into three main categories. These are (1) short didactic statements that appear to be school lessons for young scribes, very much resembling the Irish (noted as Celtic) school inscriptions reported from British Columbia in Fell's book Saga America, (2) prayers for the safety of ships at sea and for victory in impending attacks upon foes, and (3) narrative material depicting and identifying important events, such as the pagan festivals with their associated rituals and entertainments. In deciphering these Tifinag texts, from which the vowels, of course, are usually lacking, Fell used as his  reference the known vocabulary of Old Norse and Old Icelandic. However, in many cases dialects such as Old English or Old High German could equally well be used as the reference guide, with the same translation resulting, and with little more than the substituted vowels to distinguish the various dialects. Since the vowels are lacking we are left without any certain indication as to which of the Old Teutonic tongues is the closest to the speech of these ancient Norsemen people, and it is possible that all are equally related, as was suggested above. But to provide a uniform nominal vocabulary Fell selected Old Norse or Old Icelandic as the base.

School Lessons

Any literate community has to provide a means of instructing the young in the arts of reading and writing; otherwise, the skills would die out. It appears that in Bronze Age times the schoolmasters used much the same kind of didactic material for their lessons as did teachers in later ages. The subject matter ranges from simple identifications of depictions of objects of daily life to more sophisticated proverbs and adages, each illustrated by appropriate pictorial carvings.

Fig 8 illustrates two inscribed petroglyphs from the Bohuslän district that suggest that they were intended for younger readers. The first imparts a moral lesson on cooperation; the second is of the familiar grade-school type, in which people are related to their daily environment, in this case two fishermen who are "on the water." Fig. 9 shows more of the same type of illustrated statement, in which a warrior holds his buckler in such a manner as to show how the word is spelled. A bull and a cow are introduced, each illustrating how its name is spelled; and the sun god carries the image of the sun, thus showing how the letter s (for sol, sun) originated.


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Fig. 8

The pictures depict school lessons from ancient Scandinavia.

Above, Bronze Age Bohuslän. A bull and two men form a team to drag some heavy object. The Tifinag letters S-M-T-K are the consonants of the Old Norse word samtak meaning "united effort."

Below, a detail of a Bronze Age composition at Finntorp, Bohuslän, depicting two fishermen and their boat. The Tifinag letters may be read as matching the Old Norse I loegfaki vid vatn = "Fishermen on the water." The Tifinag letter "w" some-times represents Old Norse "v," and sometimes Old Norse "f." The phonetic rendering yielded by reading the Tifinag letters often seems closer to Anglo-Saxon, where the sound "w" replaced the "v" of Norse, and modern dialects of Jutland in west Denmark also retain the "w" sound (Fell 1982).


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Fig. 9

More Bronze Age school lessons from Sweden.

Above left, a man holds a shield, which is drawn to form the Tifinag letter "B," so that the inscription reads from right to left: B-K-L-A = Old Norse bukla = "shield" or "buckler."

On the right a bull is led to a cow; the bull's head forms the letter "B", to yield B-L = Old Norse beli = "a bull.” The cow is labeled GH-W, apparently for Old Norse ku, the dative case of kyr = "a cow." The text might be translated to mean "A bull for a cow" or A bull is led to a cow."

Lower left, the sun god Sol holds the consonants that spell his name S-L; the letters can also be read from right to left, to yield L-S, Old Norse lysa, giving a palindrome that becomes Sol lysa = "The sun shines." The first two petroglyphs are from Bohuslän, the third from Östfold (Fell 1982).


Fig. 10 could also be used in teaching youngsters, though the context from which these ship details are taken suggests that it is a record of a naval episode. The ships' names are given, sometimes (as in the upper example) with a helpful hieroglyph added-- the vessel is called the Serpent, and a serpent is shown between the letters that spell the word.


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Fig. 10

Three of the named vessels of a Bronze Age fleet depicted in Petroglyphs at Lökeberget, Bohuslän, Sweden.

At the top is a 16-oar ship named R-M-N = Old Norse Orminn, "The Serpent."

The middle 16-oar ship, whose name in letters reads from right to left is given as D-R-S-L = Old Norse Drasil, "Steed."

The bottom 9-oar support ship is named M-GN-A N R-A = Old Norse Magnani-aera, "The Power of Nine Oarsmen." Nine was a number with magical power (Fell 1982).


Prayers for Ships at Sea

Fig. 11 shows part of an inscription at Vanlös, Bohuslän, in which a winding strand of Tifinag letters weaves through a series of carvings of Bronze Age ships. The decipherment, as given in the caption, shows that the work was intended as some kind of charm to enable seagoing cogs to remain together, with a fair wind, and to arrive at their destination all at the same time. Fig. 12 shows two charms or prayer inscriptions intended to cause fish to take the hook. The upper illustration has the Tifinag letters laid out in a vertical column; it is a rebus simulating a fishing line with a hook at the lower end. Analogous inscriptions in Irish (noted as Celtic) dialects commonly form rebus arrangements of ogam letters, so we must conclude that texts of this type were part of the whole Norsemen culture during the Bronze Age and were by no means confined to Scandinavia.


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Fig. 11

A prayer engraved at Vanlös, Bohuslän, Sweden. The text, interwoven among ships, reads: M K-GH A-GH GH-L L W-K S-A-M-S-L, and might be understood as Old Norse Ma kuggeaga gul ol vik samslá = "May a gentle breeze drive our cogs and may we all reach harbor together." A warrior figure that also appears was omitted as another engraver undoubtedly added it (Fell 1982).


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Fig. 12

A fishing charm or prayer from Bohuslän, Sweden in which the Tifinag letters are arranged to form a rebus depicting a fishing line.

One solution may be obtained by reading the letters upward in the sequence shown, to yield L-K H-W-I H-W-I, which may be interpreted as Lak(s) hafim havim = "May we haul salmon from the sea." Another solution is obtained by reading the letters in the opposite direction (downward), to yield "May our keeled vessel haul [fish] from the sea." There is another similar rebus at Bohuslän, and is shown in the lower right. It may read as lak(s) taka haki = "May salmon take the hook." (Fell 1982).

The vessel is called the Serpent and a serpent is shown between the letters that spell the word.


Religious Festivals

Figs. 131415, & 16 illustrate a portion of a series of petroglyphs that occur on one rock face at Fossum, Bohuslän, all depicting various aspects of the events that occurred during the celebration of the Thorri festival, held during January and February. Fig. 13 shows the symbol of the festival, a sign made up of reduplicated letters of the name Thorri, resembling a thunderbolt symbol. There follows a scene in which the trumpeters, the lur-blowers, hold these curved instruments to their mouths, and an appropriate text tells us that this began the day's ceremonies. Below, in Fig. 13 we see a scene from what appears to be a hockey game appropriately labeled "ball game." Dueling with maces is the subject of Fig. 14, the competitors each wearing a sword, all as usual in this period displaying their phalluses. Fig. 15 shows petroglyphs of sorcerers performing feats of juggling, the balls that they throw into the air being the letters of the inscription itself. Fig. 16 depicts hunting with the bow and arrow and an archery contest held in connection with the Thorri festival. Notable in these texts is the use of ship symbols to provide punning words that suggest the actual word intended by the consonants or even that replace spelled-out words. The captions to these figures explain the points of interest.


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Fig. 13

At Fossum, Bohuslän, Sweden, there is a large inscription that depicts scenes from the great winter festival called Thorri, held in the 4th month of the Norse 6-month winter. These are some of the vignettes.

Top, the symbol of Thorri formed from the Tifinag letters th, r and n, repeated and arranged to make a thunderbolt design. Old Norse Thorinn = "The Thorri festival."

Middle, ceremonies open at dawn when trumpet-blowers summon the people. The Tifinag letters are interwoven with the picture, and the word gamga is represented by a punning hieroglyph of footprints, also pronounced as ganga. The text reads R-R GANGA L-D-R M-N, to be read as Old Norse Arar ganga ludramenn = "Early morning the sound of trumpet-blowers."

Below, a scene from the hockey or ball game, K-L = Old Norse kula = "ball game." (Fell 1982).


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Fig. 14

One more athletic event depicted in the Thorri inscription at Fossum, Bohuslän. The text might read: ganga Köla = "Fight with maces." The footprint hieroglyph ganga (to walk) represents the same word, but it is used in the sense of an encounter or fight (ganga has many meanings in Old Norse).

The keeled ship to the right is another punning hieroglyph, where the word kjöl approximates the sound of the word for mace or club, köl. Were the hieroglyph omitted, the reader would be uncertain about the included vowel, because only rudimentary vowel signs occur in the Tifnag script (Fell 1982).


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Fig. 15

The ancient Nordic wizards practiced sorcery by means of juggling galls. The Old Norse word kuglari means both "sorcery" and "juggling." The figures from the Thorri festival inscriptions of Bohuslän, Sweden are sorcerers.

Above, K-GH-L-R-A = Old Norse kuglari = "sorcery."

Below, W K-GH-L = Old Norse va kugla = "He has raised the balls" (Fell 1982). A image shows a person juggling.


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Fig. 16

More skits of athletic competition at the Thorri festival are shown in the great inscription at Fossum, Bohuslän, Sweden. The apparently incongruous ships here serve as phonetic punning hieroglyphs (isophones), giving words whose sound approximates that of the object depicted.

The upper inscriptions may be read as M-N SKUTA W-L = Old Norse menn skjöda villi = "men shooting wild deer." The skiff is called skuta in Old Norse, which is close to the sound of the verb "shoot." The antlers of the deer evidently contain a cryptic ogam text, as yet unresolved.

In the lower inscription a large ship appears, and the key isophones here are skuta, in this case meaning "stern," and fram, meaning, "bow." But skuta framapproximates the sound of skjöda fram = "to shoot the farthest." Therefore, the text reads in Old Norse skjoda fram ad targinn = "shooting the farthest at the target." The target is a large, round shied held by the partner, whose accouterments form the letters required, as shown. This sport seems to have been rendered harmless by removing the head from the arrow or by enclosing the head in wrapping. (Fell 1982).


With these introductory examples, it is now appropriate to leave the Swedish scene, where our readers have perhaps some questions to pose to the archaeologists of Stockholm. As for us here in the Americas, we too have matters to settle with our own archaeologists.

But the epigraphers, who study ancient inscriptions, have some explaining to do. How is it that a Berber alphabet can occur in Scandinavian Bronze Age contexts? Why does an Irish (noted as Celtic) script also occur there? Why do both scripts (and may others) occur as rock-cut inscriptions in the Americas? These are matters that have been the topic of Fell's earlier books and research papers. A few brief answers may be inserted here, for readers new to the subject.

In regard to ogam, it is easy to demonstrate the untruth of the claim mentioned above that it is a local London invention dating only from the fourth century AD. If those who make this claim (British archaeologists) should take the time to visit the numismatic department of the British Museum they would see examples of the silver coinage of the Aquitanian Gauls, struck in the second century BC and lettered in ogam consaine. They would also see Iberian and Basque imitations of these, lettered in ogam. If they should look at the artifacts excavated from the Windmill Hill site occupied around 2000 BC by the builders of Stonehenge, they would see ogam consaine engraved on these, too.

As regards the Tifinag alphabet of the Berbers, ..... Fell's thesis was that Tifinag is in fact an Ancient Norse script, and that it was taken to North Africa, probably in the twelfth century BC, when the pharaoh Ramesses III repelled an attack by Sea Peoples (who appear in his bas-reliefs) to be Norsemen (See Nyland's account). The invaders took refuge in Libya, and it is suspected that the Old Norse <= Saharan?>  runes went with them, and survived as the Tifinag. During Fell's work in North Africa he met Berbers who had no tradition of the origin but who were obviously Europoid, with fair hair, blue, gray, or hazel eyes, and typical European features.

And as for how European skippers could have reached the Americas in the early Bronze Age, their own spokesman, King Woden-lithi himself, may be left to handle that question. he does so in the words he had inscribed  on limestone in Canada 3,500 years ago, during the five months he spent in Ontario. And so for why Europe chose to forget about America, that is a matter primarily for European historians to explain, but it should be pointed out that the earth's climate became colder at the end of the Bronze Age, when the north polar icecap came into being [See Climate]. Sailing westward by the northern route became hazardous until the amelioration of climate that took place just before the onset of the Viking period.

Perhaps, when the study of rock inscriptions in Scandinavia is pursued more widely, new evidence may be discovered that could help to fill in some of the missing pieces of the record of humans upon the high seas. The increasing frigidity of the North Atlantic as the warm Bronze Age ended would not have been the only factor that might have tended to discourage transatlantic trading.

There were also changes occurring in the pattern of commerce in Europe, as the Bronze Age advanced, and these, combined with gradual exhaustion of available upper-level deposits of metallic copper in Canada, probably turned the attention of Scandinavian skippers more to the south and less to the remote lands across the Atlantic.

By 1200 BC, when the Scandinavian Bronze Age was reaching its peak, traders from the Carthaginian settlements in Spain and Tunisia were reaching the Baltic lands. They brought with them another alphabet, the Iberian, itself a development of the Phoenician way of writing. .Scandinavian inscriptions now assumed the character of commercial documents, engraved on small pieces of bone, written in the Iberian script, and recording business transactions. It was probably at this epoch that Scandinavian leaders decided that the time had come to discard the old Tifinag letters of King Woden-lithi's day and to modernize their business records by adopting the new Iberian script. So only, the religious inscriptions preserved the Tifinag in the northern lands. On the southern shores of the Mediterranean, roving Norsemen raiders also preserved their Tifinag, which ultimately became the inheritance of the Berber peoples.

The alphabet may not have been the only bequest these Norsemen made to their successors who settled in the Atlas Mountains. When Fell was working in Libya he noticed among Berbers some words still in use that had familiar Norse sound, made even more recognizable now that we can see how King Woden-lithi would have written these same words." (see Table I (Fig. 17) for examples).


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Fig. 17

Table 1 Apparent Old Norse or Old Teutonic Roots in the Berber Language. Examples are from Ali Sidhi Ahmed et al., Dictionnaire français-berbère, Imprimerie Royale, Paris, 1844). Abbreviations: ON, Old Norse; Dan, Danish; Ofaer, Old Faeroese; OE, Old English. Where no mark occurs, as in men (= but), the root occurs in all Scandinavian tongues (Fell 1982).


A Royal Visitor

On the basis of evidence gained from translations of Ogam script in North America, Fell (1982) proposed the following hypothesis: "Some seventeen centuries before the time of Christ a Norse man king named Woden-lithi sailed across the Atlantic and entered the St. Lawrence River. He reached the neighborhood of where Toronto now stands, and established a trading colony with a religious and commercial center at the place that is now known as Petroglyphs Park, at Peterborough. His homeland was Norway, his capital at Ringerike, west of the head of Oslo Fjord. He remained in Canada for five months, from April to September, trading his cargo of woven material for copper ingots obtained from the local Algonquians (whom he called Wal, a word cognate with Wales and Welsh and meaning "foreigners."). He left behind an inscription that records his visits, his religious beliefs, a standard of measures for cloth and cordage, and an astronomical observatory for determining the Norsemen calendar year, which began in march, and for determining the dates of the Yule and pagan Easter festivals. having provided his colonists with these essentials, he sailed back to Scandinavia and thereafter disappears into the limbo of unwritten Bronze Age history. The king's inscription gives his Scandinavian title only and makes no claim to the discovery of the Americas nor to conquest of territory. Clearly, he was not the first visitor to the Americas from Europe, for he found that the Ojibwa Algonquians were already acquainted with the ancient Basque syllabify. When Woden-lithi set sail for home, an Ojibwa scribe cut a short comment into the rock at the site, using the ancient Basque script and a form of Algonquian still comprehensible today, despite the lapse of time (See Nyland's account)

Fell (1982) then continued with evidence supporting such sweeping claims. He suggested, "The primary physical evidence comprises a series of inscriptions cut in the Tifinag and ogam consaine alphabets, using an early form of the Norse tongue, scattered around the outer margins of the petroglyph site at Peterborough [Ontario, Canada] (Fig. 18Fig. 18 & Fig. 19Fig. 19). Except for the central sun god and moon-goddess figures and certain astronomical axes cut across the site, the numerous inscriptions are the work of later Algonquian artists, who used King Woden-lithi's inscription as a model for their own, more conspicuous, carvings. The site has been since 1972 under official government protection, and instructions for reaching it are given by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources in various guide booklets and pamphlets available to the general public. Readers of this book will find most helpful the ministry's book Petroglyphs Provincial Park, Master Plan; also valuable for its treatment of the Algonquian art at the site is the work by Joan M. and Romas K. Vastokas entitled Sacred Art of the Algonkians (Mansard Press, 1973). The latter work is meticulous in the accurate portrayal of the inscriptions, in their present eroded state, though the authors did not then recognize the inscribed alphabets or record them as such. The important fact is that professional anthropologists such as the Vastokas team found and recorded the inscriptions and reported that they must date back to a period before the historical occupation of the region by the Hurons and later by Iroquois. In other words, the inscriptions could not be modern features, and must date back to the era of Algonquian occupation, which came to an end some five centuries before 2017.

Joan and Romas Vastokas recognized apparent Scandinavian and Bronze Age features in the art style. They pointed out that the ships depicted in the inscription are shown in the European manner, with animal figure heads and stern tailpieces, features totally unknown to Algonquian, or indeed in any American Indian, art. They, and other archaeologists, noticed the strange similarities of the central sun-god figure. and associated motifs to corresponding solar deities of Europe, especially the Bronze Age petroglyphs of Scandinavia. Other characteristic Scandinavian features that their photographs and drawings record are such elements of Norsemen mythology as the maiming of the god of war by the Fenrir wolf....., the conspicuous short-handled hammer, Mjolnir, of Thunor (Thor of the ), and Gungnir, the spear of Woden....., both of which were imitated many times over by the Algonquian artists who later occupied the site. Thus, the purely objective reports made by the Vastokases who sought only to record what they discovered, without attaching any interpretation other than that appropriate for Algonquian art, have an added value and importance for us now, for they observed the material as it was uncovered from the soil and placed it on permanent record in their photographs, charts, and descriptions. As a result of the initial discoveries, the whole site was set aside as a public part and protected by an enclosure.

Thus, the primary evidence still exists and is open for public inspection under circumstances that prevent the possible vandalization of the site. The only disturbing feature is that, since the inscriptions were exposed to the air, after removal of the covering soil that had protected them, the action of frost and acid rain has caused a gradual deterioration of the surface of the limestone. Unless steps are taken to impregnate the bedrock with a stabilizer, such as silicone, the precious record may soon melt away into unreadable markings, as part indeed already had before the site had been found.

The actual discovery should be noted here. It occurred on May 12, 1954, and was made by three geologists, Ernest CraigCharles Phipps, and Everitt Davis, in the course of fieldwork on mining claims. The following day, "Nick" Nickels, a photographer-journalist of the Peterborough Examiner, visited the site, and so began the first modern records of it. Paul Sweetman of the University of Toronto undertook the first research at the site in July 1954, recording nearly a hundred petroglyphs. Sweetman's report indicated a possible age as great as 3,500 years or as young as 400 years. His upper limit, 3,500 years, is in agreement with the epigraphic evidence as given in this book. Tens of thousands of visitors now come to the site each year, using the access road and other facilities that have been erected for their benefit. it has become a major center of archaeological interest for the whole of North America, and all Americans are grateful to the Canadian authorities for having seen to it that the ancient petroglyphs are protected yet open to all visitors.

The Vastokases, like most archaeologists in North America, felt obliged to explain all American petroglyphs as being the work of native Amerindian artists. Despite their, and others' perception of the similarities to Scandinavian petroglyphs of the Bronze Age, the idea that any connection might have existed between North America and Scandinavia in the Bronze Age, some 3,500 years ago, seemed preposterous. So they were faced with remarkable parallels, yet they elected to explain them as no more than chance similarities brought about by a shamanistic view of the sky as a kind of sea on which the sun and the moon sailed their ships to cross the heavens each day.

In treating the inscriptions in this way, they were following the example of other distinguished anthropologists and archaeologists who had investigated North American petroglyphs. The leading researcher during the last several decades had been Professor Robert Heizer of the University of California. He was vehement in his rejection of all theories that America had been visited in pre-Columbian times by voyagers from Europe, Africa, or elsewhere, and he chose to view all American petroglyphs as the products of Amerindians. He did take account of age-determination techniques, such as those dependent on carbon-dating of materials found in caves where petroglyphs occur and the evidence provided by the oxidation of rocks, especially in dry climates such as eastern California, Nevada, and Arizona. These methods enabled Heizer to set dates of up to five thousand years ago for some petroglyphs. As for me, at the time when the Ontario petroglyphs were discovered, Fell had just completed a comprehensive Scandinavian journey and had visited many of the famous inscriptions of Sweden and Denmark, though he was still a long way from recognizing the Tifinag alphabet at any Bronze Age petroglyph site beyond the shores of North Africa.

Fell's subsequent work on Tifinag led to the gradual decipherment of the ancient language of Libya and, after various Libyan scholars visited me at Harvard, Fell was invited to lecture on the Tifinag inscriptions at the universities of Tripoli and Benghazi. Just before leaving for North Africa in 1977, Fell had received from Otto Devitt the first of what were to be a continuing series of photographs he made for me of the petroglyphs at Peterborough. Although he could see that the site included Tifinag letters, the words they formed seemed to have no discernible connection with the language of ancient Libya, and he was forced to put the slides aside while undertaking other assignments.

In the interim Fell read some of Heizer's reports on the petroglyphs of eastern California and Nevada, and recognized that they included Tifinag and Kufi (early Arabic). A particularly striking case is the petroglyph in Owens Valley, California, that depicts the entire zodiac, in the form it had before the third century BC, together with a Kufi inscription explaining that the New Year is determined at the time of the vernal equinox, when the sun enters the constellation of the Ram. One of Dr. Fell's  former Harvard students, Dr. Jon Polansky, was now doing research at Berkeley, and he made the acquaintance of Professor Heizer and showed him the decipherment Fell had done on his Owens Valley petroglyphs. Consequently Professor Heizer invited me to visit him; this came about in May 1979. We became friends and, putting aside his former opposition to the notion of pre-Columbian visitors, Bob Heizer now carefully checked each element of the decipherment and confirmed that Fell had rendered his original published diagrams correctly tin the version in which In inserted the sound values of the Kufi signs. We planned a joint publication, but illness prevented him from accompanying me into the desert that year. Instead, he arranged for one of his former Berkeley students, Dr. Christopher Corson, to take me to some of the inscription areas. Dr. Corson, an archaeologist in the Bureau of Land Management, ahs the best knowledge of petroglyph sites in northern California and northwest Nevada. He led a party that included John Williams, Jon Polansky, and me, together with Wayne and Betty Struble and their son Peter. Bob Heizer planned to take part in Fell's next field trip, but to his great regret he passed away, struck down by the illness that had already prevented his participation in the 1979 fieldwork. Fell was obliged to publish the Owens Valley zodiac without the benefit of his contribution, though the illustrations of the paper had been checked by him for accuracy and had his approval.

Dr. Heizer's contribution to American petroglyph studies had been immense, and Fell's colleagues and he knew that a significant point had been reached when Heizer recognized the true nature of the Owens Valley zodiac and opened his mind to a new view of American prehistory in which pre-Columbian visitors and colonists would now play a role. Heizer, an archeologist and anthropologist, filled an intermediate position between those archeologists who devote their research to excavation of ancient sites and epigraphers, those linguists who give their energies to the decipherment of ancient inscriptions.

By 1979, the same season in which Heizer and Fell had begun to influence each other, the epigraphers of Europe had already begun to analyze by work on ancient inscriptions in America, and soon authoritative publications began to appear, giving strong support and conformation. Professor Pennar Davies, a leading Welsh scholar, and in America, Professor Sanford Etheridge, editor of Gaeltacht (an Irish-language publication), had both written in support of Fell's finding ogam inscriptions in America. In Spain, the leading Basque scholar, Dr. Imanol Agiŕe, advised me that he too confirmed Fell's reports on Basque inscriptions in Pennsylvania, dating from about the ninth century before Christ. In 1980 the volume he contributed to the Gran Enciclopedia Vasca (Great Basque Encyclopedia) contained letter-by-letter analyses of Fell's papers, and in a technical paper published in 1982 Agíre acknowledged that his decipherment of the ancient Basque syllabary was correct. These and other published papers, such as those of the Swiss linguist Professor Linus Brunner, provided competent scholarly approval of our American studies on the alphabets and syllabaries that are represented at the site in Peterborough. Their opinions, therefore, together with the detailed analyses that they have published, must be taken into account when some archaeologists, both in America and Britain, attempt to discredit the research on American inscriptions. The claims of the latter that epigraphers in America are deluded by forgeries, or even forge the alleged inscriptions themselves, have to be dismissed as ignorant remarks made without personal knowledge of the scripts or the language involved, and generally without any knowledge of the sites at which the inscriptions occur.

From the information given herein it is obvious that the petroglyphs at Peterborough cannot be forgeries, and that they are ancient. From the information given previously and those that follow, it is easy for any person who so desires to check the statements and conclusions, and as in previous books that Fell has written. Only by such methods can we eventually persuade Americans to realize that American history extends far into the past, and that America and Europe interacted through trade and cultural contact for over three thousand years before Columbus made his first voyage.

Since Fell's first book on ancient voyages to America, some important advances have been made to archaeological research bearing out that topic. In New England James P. Whittall and members of the Early Sites Research Society have discovered and excavated a site (a disk barrow) that was first occupied seven thousand years ago. Some of the skeletons show the characteristics of Europeans, yet their age by carbon dating is at least 1,600 years. One of the skulls matches closely the skulls of the ancient Irish. These facts have been determined by an anthropologist, Professor Albert Casey, whose research has been devoted to skull and bone characteristics of Old World peoples. His computer is programmed to recognize Old World characteristics in New World skulls not being discovered. The tumuli of northeastern America show great similarities to those of Europe. The radiocarbon dates indicate similar ranges to time. The artifacts excavated from American burial sites, sometimes in actual contact with the skeletons of their presumed former owners, have been discovered in some cases to have inscriptions carved upon them, in ogam and Basque script; to Dr. William P. Grigsby we owe this observation, based on his own extensive collections of artifacts from the southeastern states.

We are faced, therefore, with what amounts to conclusive evidence that the artifacts (including written inscriptions) of European peoples of the Bronze Age are found at American archaeological sites, and with these artifacts skeletons are occasionally found that conform to Europoid criteria. The recognition and confirmation of the inscriptions are due to epigraphers who have published their findings and who, in most cases, teach courses in linguistics or epigraphy at reputable universities. Thus, whether or not we can comprehend the sailing techniques of Bronze Age peoples, the fact seems inescapable that Bronze Age Europeans reached North America. Fell's personal view was that the mild climate of the Bronze Age permitted navigation to take advantage of the westward-flowing currents and westward-blowing winds of the polar regions, and thus made the natural northern route to North America much easier to use than is the case today, when polar ice intrudes and savage weather occurs [See Climate]. Fell had sailed that route and appreciated its discomforts. They would have been much less severe in the Bronze Age, while the attraction of North America for Scandinavian skippers would have been much enhanced by the availability of copper in metallic form, at a time when Europe was demanding copper for bronze alloys on a larger scale than ever before or since......




REFERENCES

Agiŕe, Imanol. Vinculos de la Lengua Vasca

Allen. Derek 1978. An Introduction to Celtic Coins. British Museum Publ., London. 80 p.

de Azukue's, Resurrección María. 1969. Diccionario Vasco-Español-Frances, Bilbao

de Retana, José María Martín. 1966. Gran Enciclopedia Vasca, Bilbao [Editorial La Gran Enciclopedia Vasca]

Engler, H. Rudolf. 1962.  Die Sonne als Symbol; der Schlüssel zu den Mysterien. Küsnacht, Helianthus-Verlag. 302 p., illus. 26 cm.

Epigraphic Society's Occasional Publications. 1981. Epigraphy Confrontation in America

Fell, Barry. 1974. Life, Space and Time: A course in Environmental Biology. Harper & Row, NY. 417 p.

Fell, Barry. 1974. An Introduction to Polynesian Epigraphy with Special Report on the Moanalla Stele known as Pohaku ka luahine. Polynesian Epigraphic Soc.

Fell, Barry. 1976. America BC. Ancient Settlers in the New World. Pocket Books, NY. 312 p.

Fell, Barry. 1982. Bronze Age America. Little, Brown and Co., Boston, Toronto. 304 p.

Fell, Barry. 1983. Saga America. A Startling New Theory on the Old World Settlement of America before Columbus. Times Book, NY. 392 p.

Fell, Barry. 1985. Ancient Punctuation and the Los Lunas text. The Epigraphic Society. p. 35-43.

Fell, Barry. 1989. America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World, Revised Edition. Pocket Books, NY. (revised ed.)

Geir, T. Zoega. 1932. English-Icelandic DictionaryBokaverslun Sigurdar Kristjanssnar, Reykjavik. 712 p.

Gran Enciclopedia Vasca

Heizer, R. F. & M. A. Baumhoff. 1962. Prehistoric Rock Art of Nevada and Eastern California. Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London. 412 p.

Oxford Dictionary of Old Icelandic

Vastokas, Joan M. & Romas. 1973. Sacred Art of the Algonkians: A study of the Peterborough Petroglyphs. Mansard Press. 1694 p.

Vastokas, Joan M. 1984. Native and European Art in Ontario 5000 BC to 867 AD. Toronto, Canada, and Gallery of Ontario. 48 p.

Zoega's, Geir T. 1910. Dictionary of Old Icelandic. Oxford University Press




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Disclaimer

Disclaimer:
Some material presented will contain links, quotes, ideologies, etc., the contents of which should be understood to first, in their whole, reflect the views or opinions of their editors, and second, are used in my personal research as "fair use" sources only, and not espousement one way or the other. Researching for 'truth' leads one all over the place...a piece here, a piece there. As a researcher, I hunt, gather and disassemble resources, trying to put all the pieces into a coherent and logical whole. I encourage you to do the same. And please remember, these pages are only my effort to collect all the pieces I can find and see if they properly fit into the 'reality aggregate'.

Personal Position

Personal Position:
I've come to realize that 'truth' boils down to what we 'believe' the facts we've gathered point to. We only 'know' what we've 'experienced' firsthand. Everything else - what we read, what we watch, what we hear - is what someone else's gathered facts point to and 'they' 'believe' is 'truth', so that 'truth' seems to change in direct proportion to newly gathered facts divided by applied plausibility. Though I believe there is 'truth', until someone celestial who 'knows' all the facts parts the heavens and throws us a scroll titled "Here Are ALL The Facts And Lies In The Order They Happened," I can't know for sure exactly what "the whole truth' on any given subject is, and what applies to me applies to everyone.
~Gail Bird Allen

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America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World

America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World

CBS' 60 Minutes program of 9/15/02: KENNEWICK MAN -- the discovery of a 9000-year-old skeleton - not only seriously questions the notion that Indians inhabited America first but is causing an old-fashioned science-versus-religion battle. While scientists are fighting for the right to study the bones Indians say their religion requires they be buried immediately - so reports 60 Minutes' Lesley Stahl ... America B.C.(Barry Fell) was uncovering this some 27 years ago! When Barry Fell's AMERICA B.C. first exploded on the literary scene it was acclaimed by critics as" ...The first major work to penetrate the mysteries of ancient European inhabitants in America" and its support has grown even stronger over the years. It has long been taken for granted that the first European visitors to American shores either sailed with Columbus in 1492 or with Norseman like Lief Erickson a full five centuries earlier.

Hardcover: 312 pages
Publisher: Times Books (November 19,1976)

Life, Space and Time: A course in Environmental Biology Life, Space and Time: A course in Environmental Biology

Life, Space and Time: A course in Environmental Biology Life, Space and Time: A course in Environmental Biology

A text dealing with the environments of the world.

Hardcover: 417 pages
Publisher: Harper & Row; 1st Edition (January 1, 1974)

Bronze Age America Bronze Age America

Bronze Age America Bronze Age America

Based on recent archaeological discoveries, this study explores the theory that Bronze-Age Swedes visited North America around the St. Lawrence River and that some Nordics migrated west, intermarrying with the Dakota tribes to form the Sioux nation.

Hardcover: 304 pages
Publisher: Little Brown & Co; 1st edition (June 1, 1982)

The Urantia Book The Urantia Book
The Urantia Book The Urantia Book

Love

Love is truly contagious and eternally creative. (p. 2018) “Devote your life to proving that love is the greatest thing in the world.” (p. 2047) “Love is the ancestor of all spiritual goodness, the essence of the true and the beautiful.” (p. 2047) The Father’s love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man’s personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows. (p. 1289) The secret of a better civilization is bound up in the Master’s teachings of the brotherhood of man, the good will of love and mutual trust. (p. 2065)

Prayer

Prayer is not a technique of escape from conflict but rather a stimulus to growth in the very face of conflict. (p. 1002) The sincerity of any prayer is the assurance of its being heard. … (p. 1639) God answers man’s prayer by giving him an increased revelation of truth, an enhanced appreciation of beauty, and an augmented concept of goodness. (p. 1002) …Never forget that the sincere prayer of faith is a mighty force for the promotion of personal happiness, individual self-control, social harmony, moral progress, and spiritual attainment. (p. 999)

Suffering

There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. (p. 364) Mortals only learn wisdom by experiencing tribulation. (p. 556)

Angels

The angels of all orders are distinct personalities and are highly individualized. (p. 285) Angels....are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them. (p. 419)

Our Divine Destiny

If you are a willing learner, if you want to attain spirit levels and reach divine heights, if you sincerely desire to reach the eternal goal, then the divine Spirit will gently and lovingly lead you along the pathway of sonship and spiritual progress. (p. 381) …They who know that God is enthroned in the human heart are destined to become like him—immortal. (p. 1449) God is not only the determiner of destiny; he is man’s eternal destination. (p. 67)

Family

Almost everything of lasting value in civilization has its roots in the family. (p. 765) The family is man’s greatest purely human achievement. ... (p. 939)

Faith

…Faith will expand the mind, ennoble the soul, reinforce the personality, augment the happiness, deepen the spirit perception, and enhance the power to love and be loved. (p. 1766) “Now, mistake not, my Father will ever respond to the faintest flicker of faith.” (p. 1733)

History/Science

The story of man’s ascent from seaweed to the lordship of earthly creation is indeed a romance of biologic struggle and mind survival. (p. 731) 2,500,000,000 years ago… Urantia was a well developed sphere about one tenth its present mass. … (p. 658) 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of Urantia [Earth] history. (p. 660) 450,000,000 years ago the transition from vegetable to animal life occurred. (p. 669) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years. (p. 707) About five hundred thousand years ago…there were almost one-half billion primitive human beings on earth. … (p. 741) Adam and Eve arrived on Urantia, from the year A.D. 1934, 37,848 years ago. (p. 828)

From the Inside Flap

What’s Inside?

Parts I and II

God, the inhabited universes, life after death, angels and other beings, the war in heaven.

Part III

The history of the world, science and evolution, Adam and Eve, development of civilization, marriage and family, personal spiritual growth.

Part IV

The life and teachings of Jesus including the missing years. AND MUCH MORE…

Excerpts

God, …God is the source and destiny of all that is good and beautiful and true. (p. 1431) If you truly want to find God, that desire is in itself evidence that you have already found him. (p. 1440) When man goes in partnership with God, great things may, and do, happen. (p. 1467)

The Origin of Human Life, The universe is not an accident... (p. 53) The universe of universes is the work of God and the dwelling place of his diverse creatures. (p. 21) The evolutionary planets are the spheres of human origin…Urantia [Earth] is your starting point. … (p. 1225) In God, man lives, moves, and has his being. (p. 22)

The Purpose of Life, There is in the mind of God a plan which embraces every creature of all his vast domains, and this plan is an eternal purpose of boundless opportunity, unlimited progress, and endless life. (p. 365) This new gospel of the kingdom… presents a new and exalted goal of destiny, a supreme life purpose. (p. 1778)

Jesus, The religion of Jesus is the most dynamic influence ever to activate the human race. (p. 1091) What an awakening the world would experience if it could only see Jesus as he really lived on earth and know, firsthand, his life-giving teachings! (p. 2083)

Science, Science, guided by wisdom, may become man’s great social liberator. (p. 909) Mortal man is not an evolutionary accident. There is a precise system, a universal law, which determines the unfolding of the planetary life plan on the spheres of space. (p. 560)

Life after Death, God’s love is universal… He is “not willing that any should perish.” (p. 39) Your short sojourn on Urantia [Earth]…is only a single link, the very first in the long chain that is to stretch across universes and through the eternal ages. (p. 435) …Death is only the beginning of an endless career of adventure, an everlasting life of anticipation, an eternal voyage of discovery. (p. 159)

About the Author

The text of The Urantia Book was provided by one or more anonymous contributors working with a small staff which provided editorial and administrative support during the book's creation. The book bears no particular credentials (from a human viewpoint), relying instead on the power and beauty of the writing itself to persuade the reader of its authenticity.

Leather Bound: 2097 pages
Publisher: Urantia Foundation; Box Lea edition (August 25, 2015)

Saga America Saga America

Saga America Saga America

Dr. Barry Fell, an Emeritus Professor at Harvard, documents trans-Atlantic Old World incursions into America with much fresh evidence of Libyan, Carthaginian, Celtic, Greek, Roman, and Viking presences on the east coast. But even more extraordinary is his documentation of Pre-Columbian Europeans in the far west. B&W illustrations and photographs.

Hardcover: 425 pages
Publisher: Times Books; 1st edition (July 1, 1980)

All That Remains All That Remains

All That Remains All That Remains

A West Virginia Archaeologist's Discoveries

Paperback: 79 pages
Publisher: Cannon Graphics; First Edition (June 1, 1991)

America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World, Revised Edition America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World, Revised Edition

America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World, Revised Edition America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World, Revised Edition

Presents evidence indicating the early settlement of regions of North America by Celts, Iberians, Basques, Phoenicians, Libyans, and Egyptians

Paperback: 352 pages
Publisher: Pocket; Revised edition (June 1, 1989)


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