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The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel (Biblical Resource Series) The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel (Biblical Resource Series)

The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel (Biblical Resource Series) The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel

From the Back Cover

In this remarkable, acclaimed history of the development of monotheism, Mark S. Smith explains how Israel's religion evolved from a cult of Yahweh as a primary deity among many to a fully defined monotheistic faith with Yahweh as sole god. Repudiating the traditional view that Israel was fundamentally different in culture and religion from its Canaanite neighbors, this provocative book argues that Israelite religion developed, at least in part, from the religion of Canaan. Drawing on epigraphic and archaeological sources, Smith cogently demonstrates that Israelite religion was not an outright rejection of foreign, pagan gods but, rather, was the result of the progressive establishment of a distinctly separate Israelite identity. This thoroughly revised second edition of "The Early History of God includes a substantial new preface by the author and a foreword by Patrick D. Miller.

Series: The Biblical Resource Series
Paperback: 289 pages
Publisher: Eerdmans; 2nd edition (August 3, 2002)

Who Wrote the Bible? Who Wrote the Bible?

Who Wrote the Bible? Who Wrote the Bible? Review

"J," "P," "E," and "D" are the names scholars have given to some authors of the Bible, and, as such, they are very important letters to a lot of people. Churches have died and been born, and millions of people have lost faith or found it, because of the last two centuries of debate about who, exactly, wrote the canonical texts of Christianity and Judaism. Richard Elliott Friedman's survey of this debate, in Who Wrote the Bible?, may be the best written popular book about this question. Without condescension or high-flown academic language, Friedman carefully describes the history of textual criticism of the Bible--a subject on which his authority is unparalleled (Friedman has contributed voluminously to the authoritative Anchor Bible Dictionary). But this book is not just smart. Perhaps even more impressive than Friedman's erudition is his sensitivity to the power of textual criticism to influence faith. --Michael Joseph Gross


A contemporary classic that is a "thought-provoking [and] perceptive guide [to the Bible's authorship]."--"New York Times Book Review"

"Brilliantly presented: There is no other book like this one. It may well be unique."--"Los Angeles Times"

"Remarkable. Friedman has written that most rare of books: a legitimate intellectual contribution that is also a good read. The field of biblical studies will be enriched by this book."--"Dallas Times Herald"

"It is an event to have a book as readable and exciting as "Who Wrote the Bible? "It has about it the resounding smack of solid truth."--"Harvard Magazine"

Paperback: 304 pages
Publisher: HarperOne; Reprint edition (March 21, 1997)

What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It? What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?: What Archeology Can Tell Us About the Reality of Ancient Israel
What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?: What Archeology Can Tell Us About the Reality of Ancient Israel What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?

For centuries the Hebrew Bible has been the fountainhead of the Judeo-Christian tradition. Today, however, the entire biblical tradition, including its historical veracity, is being challenged. Leading this assault is a group of scholars described as the "minimalist" or "revisionist" school of biblical studies, which charges that the Hebrew Bible is largely pious fiction, that its writers and editors invented "ancient Israel" as a piece of late Jewish propaganda in the Hellenistic era.

In this fascinating book noted Syro-Palestinian archaeologist William G. Dever attacks the minimalist position head-on, showing how modern archaeology brilliantly illuminates both life in ancient Palestine and the sacred scriptures as we have them today. Assembling a wealth of archaeological evidence, Dever builds the clearest, most complete picture yet of the real Israel that existed during the Iron Age of ancient Palestine (1200–600 B.C.).

Dever's exceptional reconstruction of this key period points up the minimalists' abuse of archaeology and reveals the weakness of their revisionist histories. Dever shows that ancient Israel, far from being an "invention," is a reality to be discovered. Equally important, his recovery of a reliable core history of ancient Israel provides a firm foundation from which to appreciate the aesthetic value and lofty moral aspirations of the Hebrew Bible.

Paperback: 327 pages
Publisher: Eerdmans; Later Printing edition (May 10, 2001)

The Urantia Book The Urantia Book
The Urantia Book The Urantia Book


Love is truly contagious and eternally creative. (p. 2018) “Devote your life to proving that love is the greatest thing in the world.” (p. 2047) “Love is the ancestor of all spiritual goodness, the essence of the true and the beautiful.” (p. 2047) The Father’s love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man’s personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows. (p. 1289) The secret of a better civilization is bound up in the Master’s teachings of the brotherhood of man, the good will of love and mutual trust. (p. 2065)


Prayer is not a technique of escape from conflict but rather a stimulus to growth in the very face of conflict. (p. 1002) The sincerity of any prayer is the assurance of its being heard. … (p. 1639) God answers man’s prayer by giving him an increased revelation of truth, an enhanced appreciation of beauty, and an augmented concept of goodness. (p. 1002) …Never forget that the sincere prayer of faith is a mighty force for the promotion of personal happiness, individual self-control, social harmony, moral progress, and spiritual attainment. (p. 999)


There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. (p. 364) Mortals only learn wisdom by experiencing tribulation. (p. 556)


The angels of all orders are distinct personalities and are highly individualized. (p. 285) Angels....are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them. (p. 419)

Our Divine Destiny

If you are a willing learner, if you want to attain spirit levels and reach divine heights, if you sincerely desire to reach the eternal goal, then the divine Spirit will gently and lovingly lead you along the pathway of sonship and spiritual progress. (p. 381) …They who know that God is enthroned in the human heart are destined to become like him—immortal. (p. 1449) God is not only the determiner of destiny; he is man’s eternal destination. (p. 67)


Almost everything of lasting value in civilization has its roots in the family. (p. 765) The family is man’s greatest purely human achievement. ... (p. 939)


…Faith will expand the mind, ennoble the soul, reinforce the personality, augment the happiness, deepen the spirit perception, and enhance the power to love and be loved. (p. 1766) “Now, mistake not, my Father will ever respond to the faintest flicker of faith.” (p. 1733)


The story of man’s ascent from seaweed to the lordship of earthly creation is indeed a romance of biologic struggle and mind survival. (p. 731) 2,500,000,000 years ago… Urantia was a well developed sphere about one tenth its present mass. … (p. 658) 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of Urantia [Earth] history. (p. 660) 450,000,000 years ago the transition from vegetable to animal life occurred. (p. 669) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years. (p. 707) About five hundred thousand years ago…there were almost one-half billion primitive human beings on earth. … (p. 741) Adam and Eve arrived on Urantia, from the year A.D. 1934, 37,848 years ago. (p. 828)

From the Inside Flap

What’s Inside?

Parts I and II

God, the inhabited universes, life after death, angels and other beings, the war in heaven.

Part III

The history of the world, science and evolution, Adam and Eve, development of civilization, marriage and family, personal spiritual growth.

Part IV

The life and teachings of Jesus including the missing years. AND MUCH MORE…


God, …God is the source and destiny of all that is good and beautiful and true. (p. 1431) If you truly want to find God, that desire is in itself evidence that you have already found him. (p. 1440) When man goes in partnership with God, great things may, and do, happen. (p. 1467)

The Origin of Human Life, The universe is not an accident... (p. 53) The universe of universes is the work of God and the dwelling place of his diverse creatures. (p. 21) The evolutionary planets are the spheres of human origin…Urantia [Earth] is your starting point. … (p. 1225) In God, man lives, moves, and has his being. (p. 22)

The Purpose of Life, There is in the mind of God a plan which embraces every creature of all his vast domains, and this plan is an eternal purpose of boundless opportunity, unlimited progress, and endless life. (p. 365) This new gospel of the kingdom… presents a new and exalted goal of destiny, a supreme life purpose. (p. 1778)

Jesus, The religion of Jesus is the most dynamic influence ever to activate the human race. (p. 1091) What an awakening the world would experience if it could only see Jesus as he really lived on earth and know, firsthand, his life-giving teachings! (p. 2083)

Science, Science, guided by wisdom, may become man’s great social liberator. (p. 909) Mortal man is not an evolutionary accident. There is a precise system, a universal law, which determines the unfolding of the planetary life plan on the spheres of space. (p. 560)

Life after Death, God’s love is universal… He is “not willing that any should perish.” (p. 39) Your short sojourn on Urantia [Earth]…is only a single link, the very first in the long chain that is to stretch across universes and through the eternal ages. (p. 435) …Death is only the beginning of an endless career of adventure, an everlasting life of anticipation, an eternal voyage of discovery. (p. 159)

About the Author

The text of The Urantia Book was provided by one or more anonymous contributors working with a small staff which provided editorial and administrative support during the book's creation. The book bears no particular credentials (from a human viewpoint), relying instead on the power and beauty of the writing itself to persuade the reader of its authenticity.

Leather Bound: 2097 pages
Publisher: Urantia Foundation; Box Lea edition (August 25, 2015)

Stories From Ancient Canaan Stories from Ancient Canaan

Stories from Ancient Canaan Stories from Ancient Canaan

Contained on fifteen of the cuneiform tables uncovered at the ancient Canaanite city of Ugarit are the four major oral Ugartic myths of Aqhat, The Healers, Kirta and Baal. Stories from Ancient Canaan is the first to offer a one-volume translation of all four. This accessible book teaches the principal Canaanite religious literature, and will be useful to students of the history of religion, of the Bible, and of comparative literature.

Paperback: 124 pages
Publisher: Westminster John Knox Press; 1st edition (January 1, 1978)

Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From?

Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From?

From the Back Cover

Other Editions: Hardcover

This book addresses one of the most timely and urgent topics in archaeology and biblical studies -- the origins of early Israel. For centuries the Western tradition has traced its beginnings back to ancient Israel, but recently some historians and archaeologists have questioned the reality of Israel as it is described in biblical literature. In "Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From?" William Dever explores the continuing controversies regarding the true nature of ancient Israel and presents the archaeological evidence for assessing the accuracy of the well-known Bible stories.

Confronting the range of current scholarly interpretations seriously and dispassionately, Dever rejects both the revisionists who characterize biblical literature as "pious propaganda" and the conservatives who are afraid to even question its factuality. Attempting to break through this impasse, Dever draws on thirty years of archaeological fieldwork in the Near East, amassing a wide range of hard evidence for his own compelling view of the development of Israelite history.

In his search for the actual circumstances of Israel's emergence in Canaan, Dever reevaluates the Exodus-Conquest traditions in the books of Exodus, Numbers, Joshua, Judges, and 1 & 2 Samuel in the light of well-documented archaeological evidence from the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. Among this important evidence are some 300 small agricultural villages recently discovered in the heartland of what would later become the biblical nation of Israel. According to Dever, the authentic ancestors of the "Israelite peoples" were most likely Canaanites -- together with some pastoral nomadsand small groups of Semitic slaves escaping from Egypt -- who, through the long cultural and socioeconomic struggles recounted in the book of Judges, managed to forge a new agrarian, communitarian, and monotheistic society.

Written in an engaging, accessible style and featuring fifty photographs that help bring the archaeological record to life, this book provides an authoritative statement on the origins of ancient Israel and promises to reinvigorate discussion about the historicity of the biblical tradition.

Paperback: 280 pages
Publisher: Eerdmans (March 31, 2006)

The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts

The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts

In this groundbreaking work that sets apart fact and legend, authors Finkelstein and Silberman use significant archeological discoveries to provide historical information about biblical Israel and its neighbors.

In this iconoclastic and provocative work, leading scholars Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman draw on recent archaeological research to present a dramatically revised portrait of ancient Israel and its neighbors. They argue that crucial evidence (or a telling lack of evidence) at digs in Israel, Egypt, Jordan, and Lebanon suggests that many of the most famous stories in the Bible—the wanderings of the patriarchs, the Exodus from Egypt, Joshua’s conquest of Canaan, and David and Solomon’s vast empire—reflect the world of the later authors rather than actual historical facts.

Challenging the fundamentalist readings of the scriptures and marshaling the latest archaeological evidence to support its new vision of ancient Israel, The Bible Unearthed offers a fascinating and controversial perspective on when and why the Bible was written and why it possesses such great spiritual and emotional power today.

About the Author

Israel Finkelstein is a professor of archaeology at Tel Aviv University. He is a leading figure in the archaeology of the Levant and the laureate of the 2005 Dan David Prize in the Past Dimension -- Archaeology. Finkelstein served for many years as the Director of the Institute of Archaeology at Tel Aviv University and is the co-Director of the Megiddo Expedition. He is the co-author, with Neil Silberman, of The Bible Unearthed (Free Press, 2001) and the author of many field reports and scholarly articles.

Paperback: 385 pages
Publisher: Touchstone; Reprint edition (June 11, 2002)



The Evolution of God

The Unspoken Bible
[I find the author's remark, "There is enough information on this site to convince all but hardened theists that the Bible should be retired to its rightful place next to pagan mythology" disparaging against those who believe in God (theists). There are mistakes, deletions, and word ballet that has occured, and I do believe we have a 'deep state' consortium hell bent on discrediting religion and faith, but to relegate its great historical written works to the realm of "pagan mythology" is irresponsible. ~GBA]



Most people can't think,
most of the remainder won't think,
the small fraction who do think
mostly can't do it very well.
The extremely tiny fraction who think regularly,
and without self-delusion
- in the long run,
these are the only people who count.
- Robert Heinlein

St. Thomas Aquinas
Depiction of St. Thomas Aquinas from
The Demidoff Altarpiece by Carlo Crivelli

Does God exist? Believers take a great degree of comfort that their claims for the existence of God cannot be disproved. They might be ignorant of scientific reason or be making a bluff defense knowing that scientific reasoning is based on observation. Science cannot directly “disprove” the existence of God, simply because there is no physical evidence upon which to base a “disproof.”

Rather than take that approach, scientific reasoning drives out erroneous ideas when stronger evidence points to better explanations. While Christians impugn the word “theory” as if it represents a great deal of doubt, in the science lexicon, it is a way of expressing science’s open-endedness. In comparison, while religionists are certain of their faith, the word epitomizes belief without evidence despite the many evidential contradictions that make faith problematical.

We will leave aside the argument against the existence of god in the generic sense. A generic god cannot be defined. The word could mean almost anything within the limits of human imagination. Even the currently faddish explanation, Intelligent Design, tells us nothing of the attributes of this so-called form of intelligence. The hope among proponents is that believers will translate the idea to their favorite personal God.

Scientific reasoning avoids that trap by binding itself to observable evidence. With regards to cosmology, it can’t be known if the universe had a beginning. The famous Big Bang Theory only suggests a cosmic explosion 10-20 billion years ago. Even NASA modestly admits:

The Big Bang
Big Bang - A theory of cosmology in which the expansion of the universe is presumed to have begun with a primeval explosion (referred to as the "Big Bang").

"Although the Big Bang Theory is widely accepted, it probably will never be proven; consequently, leaving a number of tough, unanswered questions."

Suppose there is an infinite universe. By definition it can’t be seen. The Big Bang, if it is true, may only have been an explosion within a universe with no beginning and no end. Or to say it another way, existence always existed. Science does not rise or fall on whether existence had a beginning or not. Mainstream religion’s credibility cannot tolerate this ambiguity.

For that, we will turn our attention to the beginning of “God,” the proper noun; when did god become God? Mainstream religions place no credibility in heathen religions, yet their very foundation rests on them. If “God” had a beginning, archeological and historical evidence points to the polytheistic religions that preceded and paralleled the rise of Judaism and early Christianity. Religionists could argue that belief in a single God was a refinement of all the other ideas. The problem with that assertion is that without something concrete to guide the direction of their logic, there are as many explanations for the existence of a God or god(s) as human minds can imagine.

Fortunately, we have two concrete sources from which to trace the evolution of God: archeology and the Bible. By that route, this report will show that Israelite religion branched off from the Canaanite religions. The Israelites were not monotheists; they were henotheists, which mean that their culture was defined by their worship of Yahweh as their only god, but they did not deny the existence of other gods. During their earliest history they also worshipped El, from which their namesake derived, and Baal and Asherah. The idea of a single exclusive God didn’t enter Hebrew culture until the Babylonian exile. By extension, this is the false foundation on which Christianity and Islam rest.

The ancient Israelites did not live in a cultural vacuum. From prehistoric times, Canaan was linked to Egypt and Mesopotamia. Those two powerful nations dominated Canaan and Israel from the mid-third to the first millennium BCE. The first mention of Israel comes from an inscribed monument of the pharaoh Merneptah. This stele dates to the fifth year of the pharaoh’s reign (ca. 1208) and mentions both Israel and Canaan.

Merneptah Stela
Merneptah Stela - The most important mention of Israel outside of the Bible is found in the Merneptah Stela. Discovered in 1896 in Merneptah's mortuary temple in Thebes by Flinders Petrie, the stela is a eulogy to pharaoh Merneptah, who ruled Egypt after Rameses the Great, c. 1236-1223 BC. - Of significance to Biblical studies is a short section at the end of the poem describing a campaign to Canaan by Merneptah in the first few years of his reign. One line mentions Israel: "Israel is laid waste, its seed is not." Here we have the earliest mention of Israel outside the Bible and the only mention of Israel in Egyptian records. - Also mentioned is "Carried off is Ashkelon; seized upon is Gezer; Yanoam is made as that which does not exist." - This puts Israel as a nation right after the conquest of Canaan by Joshua (1406 BC).

The princes are prostrate, saying: “Mercy!”
No one raises his head among the Nine Bows.
Desolation is for ‘Tehenu; Hatis is pacified;
Plundered is the Canaan with every evil;
Carried off is Ashelon; seized upon is Gezer;
Yanoam is made as that which does not exist;
Israel is laid waste, his seed is not;
Hurru is become a widow for Egypt;
All lands together, they are pacified;
Everyone who is restless, he has been bound.

Surely, the Israelites were late comers to the history of religion. Says Smith, author of The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel (Biblical Resource Series), “The word ‘Canaan’ is written with a special linguistic feature called a determinative, denoting land. ‘Israel’ is written with the determinative for people.” In other words, there was an ethnic group call Israel, before it became a kingdom or city-state.

El and Baal

The God El - Excavated at Megiddo, Israel, and dates to 1400-1200 B.C.
The chief of the pantheon and father of the gods worshipped by the Canaanites of Israel was El, who is portrayed here in gold-covered bronze. Excavated at Megiddo, Israel, it dates to 1400-1200 B.C. (Photo Courtesy: The Oriental Institute)

The study of Canaanite deities in connection with Yahweh was made possible by the discovery of ancient texts, especially from the ancient city of Ugarit in 1929. Now called Ras Shamra, it is located on the coast of Syria.

The Ugaritic mythological texts feature the deities El, the aged and kindly patriarch of the pantheon. Asherah was his consort and queen mother of the divine family. Baal was the young storm-god and divine warrior. His sister was Anat, likewise a martial deity. They also mention a solar deity.

El was the creator of all things and was believed to be the father of all things. Over time, El’s name became the generic Semitic term for any god. El was the oldest of the gods. He was head of the divine council, and he was well respected for his wisdom and judgment. El’s home was in the mountains, far to the north, believed to be the source of the waters of the cosmos. El lived far away where the waters originated, up in the mountains. When the other gods want to consult with El, they must go to where El is.

The most significant epithet given to El was “the Bull El.” The mainstream interpretation is that the name symbolized strength, but I think it had more to do astrological Age of Taurus when the god was popular. His consort was his sister, the mother of the god Ashura or Elat. El’s other sister, Astarte, was also his mistress, and so was his daughter Anat, who is also the wife of his son, Baal. The divine relationships show plenty of incest and a lot of fertility.

Ba'al stela from Ugarit-Ras Shamra, H. 142 cm, c. 18th-15th c. BCE, Musee du Louvre, AO 15775.

El also appears as a divine warrior, but only in the context of gaining supremacy over the other gods. Once he becomes dominant among equals, he retires from warfare and the work of divine warrior falls to Baal (right). Baal also sits at El’s right hand in the council of gods. Baal was initially a god of the storm who made the earth fertile by providing rain. The name of Baal means “Lord or master.” And like El, the name of Baal became a generic identification for gods. Sometime in the murkiness of Israelite history, the Israelite cult of Yahweh arose as belief in El faded.

Hebrew origins of yahweh

To hear the monotheists (Christian, Jewish; Islam) tell it, there was one god who created the universe — theirs. The way the Bible tells it, there were many gods responsible for the origins of the universe. We learn this by translating to Hebrew. “El” is the singular for god and “elohim” is its plural form. Thus in the first creation story:

The name “Yahweh” first appears in the second creation story, but as Yahweh elohim, meaning “Yahweh of the gods.” If this is to be interpreted as a continuation of the first creation, then it is about one of the gods, Yahweh, who created a particular place, Eden, within the greater universe.

The story of Noah’s Ark has two different writers, scholars call “J” and “E.”

Genesis 15:11 asks “Who is like you among the gods.”

And of course there are the famous words of the First Commandment, “You shall have no other gods before me.”

Christian apologists try to have it both ways by saying that the plural refers to the Holy Trinity. To do that they would have to ignore the pluralisms, alien gods, and pantheon of lesser gods mentioned throughout the Bible. Clearly, the early Hebrews were henotheists who recognized the existence of many gods.

From El to Yahweh

As suggestive by the “El” in the name “Israel,” the original god of Israel was El. Why this is likely is because there are no polemics against El. There is no distinct cult identified with El except when identified as Yahweh. As the Bible tells us “Semite” comes from Shem, Noah’s oldest son (Gen. 5:32) and “Hebrew” is derived from Eber, a descendant of Shem (Gen. 10:21). Incidentally, Babylonia comes from bili, meaning “gate of God.”

Most times, “El” and “Elohim” are used as a general term for god. But there are a few passages where “El” and “Elohim” are used as proper names.

El is presented separately from Yahweh. El Shadday means “El of the mountain,” not El Almighty as the revisionists translate in the Bible. Similar to El, Yahweh was thought to live on a mountaintop. It brings to mind, Moses’ visit to Mount Sinai to receive the Ten Commandments.

Yahweh is cast as one of the sons of El, called elyon here. He has portioned the land allotted to Jacob. At first Yahweh co-existed with the Canaanite gods, but later competed as a warrior god. There is a kind of a parallel in several Bible stories where brothers become rivals and the namesakes of competing geographies.

El has taken his place in the divine council as the one who holds judgment.

Isaiah refers to the stars of El.

El and Yahweh are distinguished as two different gods, with El as the superior. El Elohim means El of the gods, not mighty God—the translators mislead.

The Bible rarely distinguishes between El and Yahweh. The development of El into a generic noun meaning “god” was compatible with the loss of El’s distinct character in Israelite religion.

LXX Minor Prophets
Evidence that the Septuagint (a 3rd to 2nd Century BCE Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures) originally contained the Tetragrammaton (YHWH), the name of God, Yahweh. This ancient fragment is dated between 50 BCE and 50 CE (AD). If this dating is correct, it would have been written near the time of Jesus' ministry. The name of these fragments are "Nahal Hever Minor Prophets" because they are fragments of Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah and Zechariah and was found in the Nahal Hever cave, south of Qumran. The Tetragrammaton is written in the ancient Hebrew (Paleo-Hebrew) script.
Evidence that the Septuagint (a 3rd to 2nd Century BCE Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures) originally contained the Tetragrammaton (YHWH), the name of God, Yahweh. This ancient fragment is dated between 50 BCE and 50 CE (AD). If this dating is correct, it would have been written near the time of Jesus' ministry. The name of these fragments are "Nahal Hever Minor Prophets" because they are fragments of Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah and Zechariah and was found in the Nahal Hever cave, south of Qumran. The Tetragrammaton is written in the ancient Hebrew (Paleo-Hebrew) script.

When Yahweh introduces himself to Moses, he reveals the fact that he was unknown to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Instead, they worshipped El Shadday, El of the mountain.

Joshua remarks that the father of Abraham served other gods. It only stands to reason that Abraham did too.

Ezekiel tells us that the Yahwistic god was inherited from the Canaanites.

Compare this sampling of biblical and Ugarit text. The tent and holy hill refer to the sky—the stars rise and fall in an arc pattern. The circle above the earth refers to the Zodiac.

Yahweh dwells in a tent.

El lives in a tent

She opened El’s tent and entered
the shrine of the King, the Father of Time.

Baal and Yahweh

We’re going to compare more biblical text with similar Ugarit text. These are the early years of the Israelite religion when Yahweh was a local god. The point is to show how early Judaism imitated Canaanite religion.

Yahweh was thought as a storm god. He brings rain, wind and lightening.

Baal controls the weather.

Now Baal will begin the rainy season,
the season of the wadis in flood;
and he will sound his voice in the clouds,
flash his lightening to the earth.

Yahweh the divine warrior rides on the clouds.

Baal was portrayed as a conqueror who rides on the clouds.

Hail, Baal the Conqueror!
Hail, Rider on the Clouds!
For Prince of the Sea is our Captive,
Judge River is our captive.

Raphael - The Vision of Ezekiel ca. 1518
Yahweh makes the clouds his chariot in The Vision of Ezekiel by Raphael ca. 1518
Yahweh makes the clouds his chariot in The Vision of Ezekiel by Raphael ca. 1518

If the clouds are Yahweh’s chariot, it is the sun which rides on the clouds. This is similar to pagan imagery where the sun is thought of as riding on a chariot. This verse refers to the chariots of the sun.

Ancients thought of the sun as a wheel turning through the heavens. This gives meaning to Elijah’s ascent into heaven.

Elijah Taken Up To HeavenIn A Chariot Of Fire
Elijah Taken Up To HeavenIn A Chariot Of Fire by Gustave Dore

In another imagery, the sun is thought here of as Yahweh’s shield and face.

During later times Ezekiel was critical of the Israelites who continued to worship the sun. The legacy of sun worship can be found in the place names with Shemesh attached, the name of the Babylonian sun god (Josh. 15:7, 10, 18:17, 19:41 & 21:16).

In Ugarit text, the sun is depicted as the gods’ torch.

And the Virgin Anat replied:
“Wherever you go Sun,
wherever you go, may El protect you.

Sun, the gods’ torch, burns
the heavens shimmer under the sway of El’s darling,

Yahweh has a sanctuary in Sinai.

Baal had a home on Mount Zaphon.

Baal’s mountain, father, we weep for you,
Zaphon, the holy stronghold,
the holy stronghold will lament,
the stronghold wide and strong.

Watch the imagery in Exodus 19 when Moses enters the holy mountain of Sinai, to receive the Ten Commandments.

And Mount Sinai was wrapped in smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire; and the smoke of it went up like the smoke of a kiln, and the whole mountain quaked greatly. (Ex. 19:18)
And Mount Sinai was wrapped in smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire; and the smoke of it went up like the smoke of a kiln, and the whole mountain quaked greatly. (Ex. 19:18)
And Mount Sinai was wrapped in smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire; and the smoke of it went up like the smoke of a kiln, and the whole mountain quaked greatly. (Ex. 19:18)

The Baal imagery is similar

Then Baal opened a slit in the clouds,
Baal sounded his holy voice,
Baal thundered from his lips …
the earth’s high places shook.

Abraham’s anachronism

Abraham, the Hebrew patriarch, comes to our knowledge as a nomadic Chaldean Semite from Ur (map below). The first documented reference to “Chaldea” is found in the annals of Ashurnasirpal II, king of Assyria form 884 to 859 BCE. As we shall see, there was no Chaldea at the time Abraham.

Abraham’s (Abram) father had intended to take his family to Canaan but stopped at Haran.

by Dore Abraham Journeying Into The Land Of Canaan
Abraham Journeying Into The Land Of Canaan by Gustave Dore
Yahweh told Abraham to continue the journey to Canaan

At face value alone, Abraham would have had to have spoken the Babylonian language and initially worshipped the same pagan gods. Joshua makes that point.

To regress, some background history will give a sense of the influences felt in Israel. “Mesopotamia” in Greek means “Between the Rivers.”  In the ancient world, northern Upper Mesopotamia referred to Assyria. The southern Lower Mesopotamia included Babylon itself and the cities of the earliest kingdoms of Akkad and Sumer.  Ur is located at the junction of the Tigress-Euphrates where they flow into the Persian Gulf.


The people of the city of Sumer, the Sumerians became dominant around 3100 BCE; they were followed about two centuries later by the Amorites who settled to the north of the Sumerians in what is now Baghdad. The first kings were Akkadian, descendents of the Semitic Amorites. The first great king of Mesopotamia was Sargon the Great (left) who ruled from 2334 BCE to 2279 BCE. At the end of his time, Akkad sank into obscurity with the return of the Sumerians into supremacy.

Ur-Nammu ca. 2112-2004BC
Mesopotamia, Third Dynasty of Ur (ca. 2112–2004 B.C.) Copper Height: 335 mm Inscribed: "Ur-Nammu, king of Ur, king of Sumer and Akkad, the one who built the temple of Enlil." Ur-Nammu was the first king of the Third Dynasty of Ur where a major centre of worship for the moon god Sin was located.

Their supremacy was established by a king named Ur-Nammu around 2111 BCE. Known as the third dynasty of Ur, it lasted about one century until the city of Ur was devastated by a group from the east called the Elamites in 2004 BCE. It is my personal guess that this is where Ur got its name. Kings don’t take their name from cities, they name cities after themselves.

Hammurabi Stele
This shining black diorite pillar called the Hammurabi Stele, was discovered in 1901 at the acropolis of ancient Susa by a French archaeological expedition under M. J. de Morgan. The monument itself sits in the Louvre, where it was taken as cultural heritage property by the French, while a replica is open to visits at the University Pennsylvania Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology

The stele stands 7' 3-3/4" tall and is decorated with a bas-relief of Hammurabi being commissioned by the sun god Shamash to inscribe the laws. The code contains nearly 4,000 lines of text containing around 282 laws, a historical prologue, and a literary and religious epilogue.

Hammurabi was the king of Babylon around 1800 BC and a contemporary of Abraham, the first Hebrew and he is identified by scholars as the "Amraphel" of the Bible (Genesis 14) who was one of the kings who captured Abraham's nephew Lot.

The discovery of the Hammurabi Stele was one of the most important discoveries in Biblical Archaeology. It is an original document from the time of Abraham, bearing testimony of a highly advanced system of law and a remarkably advanced time period.

"And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations; That these made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar. All these were joined together in the vale of Siddim, which is the salt sea." - Genesis 14:1-3

Babylon, the next city-state to rise to dominance, was formally Akkadian. Its first great king, Hammurabi dated from 1792 to 1750 BCE. Hammurabi is best remembered for his law code which was written on a stele topped by a depiction of Hammurabi himself before the sun god, Shamash. But he was not the first to write a law code—that was Ur-Nammu. Contrary to biblical myth, the Ten Commandments were not the first law code. Rather, the Hebrews copied their neighbors.

Tukulti-Ninurta I

In the centuries that followed, Mesopotamia was invaded by non-Semitics from the west, Hittites, Hurians and Kassites. From the upper Tigris valley, another Semitic people, the Assyrians came to prominence over Mesopotamia under Tukulti-Ninurta I, who sacked the city of Babylon in 1235 BCE—thereby asserting his sovereignty over the south. The Bible calls him Nimrod (Gen. 10:8-10).

Ashurnasirpal II

The first reference to Chaldea is found in the annals of Ashurnasirpal II (left), king of Assyria from 884 to 859 BCE. The last great king of Assyria was Assurbanipal, whose dates are 669 to 627 BCE. The Assyrians were dismantled by the Medians to the northeast and by the Kaldians (Chaldeans) or neo-Babylonians.


Their first great king (604-562 BCE) was none other than Nebuchadnezzar (right) of Jewish exile fame. Early Chaldea referred to southern Babylon. In later times, Chaldea became synonymous with the Babylonian Empire. The Chaldean dynasty held sway until the Persian invasion of 539 BCE.

The link between Ur and Chaldea gives away when the story of Abraham was written. While Ur was certainly an ancient city, Chaldea did not become prominent until the seventh century under Nebuchadnezzar. By biblical accounts, Abraham existed from 2046-2100 BCE and the Chaldeans didn’t exist until the 600s. Why? Ur was renowned as a place of learning during Chaldean times, especially to astrology. It would have enhanced Abraham's prestige to come from such a place.

Abraham's Journey

Bablonian Empire

This is a list of most other anachronisms.

Abraham is said to have contact with Philistines, but they did not enter the Palestine area before 12 BCE. According to Finkelstein, author of The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, the mention of Gerar had a special significance. It was an insignificant village until the late eighth and seventh century BCE when it became a heavily fortified Assyrian stronghold and an obvious landmark.

Arameans are mentioned, but they did not appear as a distinct group before 1100 BCE.

The story of Jacob and Esau describes the fathers of Israel and Edom, but there was no state of Edom before the eighth century BCE.

There are many mentions of domesticated camels, but as far as anyone can tell, camels were not domesticated much before the first millennium BCE, about the time when the kingdom of Israel was founded.

The story of Joseph mentions camel caravan trade with the Ishmaelites (Arabians). Trade on that level flourished during the Assyrian empire in the eighth-seventh centuries BCE.

Hebron was a principal city of Judah, so the writer has Abraham build an altar in Hebron

This passage describes the nation’s boundaries under King David, written with hindsight.

Jacob saw God face to face at Peniel, a city built by King Jeroboam in Israel.

Exodus 32:30 Jacob named the place Peniel (which means face of God), for he said, I have seen God face to face, yet my life has been spared.
Exodus 32:30 Jacob named the place Peniel (which means face of God), for he said, I have seen God face to face, yet my life has been spared.
Exodus 32:30 Jacob named the place Peniel (which means face of God), for he said, I have seen God face to face, yet my life has been spared.

For these reasons and more, Finkelstein places writing of the patriarch narratives in the eighth and seventh centuries BCE. This is not one man’s opinion. There are probably some religious archeologists who refuse to concede, but the sources I’ve found are in general agreement. Friedman, author of Who Wrote the Bible?, tells us that scholars have given these writers alphabet names: “J” for Yahweh and “E for Elohim. There were others, but these two are the ones we are concerned with. Friedman dates them between 1200-722 BCE when there were two kingdoms. Even as generous as Friedman is, that still leaves a thousand year difference between when Abraham supposedly lived and when Genesis was written. I could go through the same exercise with Moses and the Exodus. Instead, I’ll pass on the words of Michael Dever, author of Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From?:

"After a century of exhaustive investigation, all respectable archaeologists have given up hope of recovering any context that would make Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob credible “historical figures.” And, as we have seen, archaeological investigation of Moses and the Exodus has similarly been discarded as a fruitless pursuit."

The development of Israelite monotheism

In the second stage, the condemnation of foreign gods brings with it the implication that Yahweh has power over them. The trend starts with 1 Kings 18, which tells the story of Elijah who challenged the Baal priests to a contest to see which god could make wet wood burn. When Elijah won he had the priests killed.

These next three passages suggest Yahweh has power over other nations.

The concept of a supernatural heaven was developed sometime after the Bible was written. Ancients perceived the gods living in physical heaven.

Several verses are critical of the emptiness of idol worship.

Worshipping the golden calf

It wasn’t until the exile or shortly beforehand when Judaism turned monotheistic, i.e. Yahweh was the only deity in the universe. This is dramatically stressed in second Isaiah and Jeremiah.


That’s the general outline of the offshoot of the Biblical god from the Canaanite gods, from a local god to the most powerful god to the only God. This is the foundation of the development of the Christian God and the Islamic God.

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Some material presented will contain links, quotes, ideologies, etc., the contents of which should be understood to first, in their whole, reflect the views or opinions of their editors, and second, are used in my personal research as "fair use" sources only, and not espousement one way or the other. Researching for 'truth' leads one all over the place...a piece here, a piece there. As a researcher, I hunt, gather and disassemble resources, trying to put all the pieces into a coherent and logical whole. I encourage you to do the same. And please remember, these pages are only my effort to collect all the pieces I can find and see if they properly fit into the 'reality aggregate'.

Personal Position

Personal Position:
I've come to realize that 'truth' boils down to what we 'believe' the facts we've gathered point to. We only 'know' what we've 'experienced' firsthand. Everything else - what we read, what we watch, what we hear - is what someone else's gathered facts point to and 'they' 'believe' is 'truth', so that 'truth' seems to change in direct proportion to newly gathered facts divided by applied plausibility. Though I believe there is 'truth', until someone representing the celestial realm visibly appears and presents the heavenly records of Facts And Lies In The Order They Happened, I can't know for sure exactly what "the whole truth' on any given subject is, and what applies to me applies to everyone. Until then I'll continue to ask, "what does The Urantia Book say on the subject?"
~Gail Bird Allen

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