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The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament Volume One
The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament Volume One The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament: Apocrypha

The most esteemed body of books left out of the Bible, the Old Testament Apocrypha is of interest to historians, religious scholars, and ordinary laypeople alike. For more than 70 years this version, edited by R.H. Charles, has been the definitive critical edition. Out of print for years, Apocryphile Press is proud to make it available once more to scholars and the curious.

Paperback: 700 pages
Publisher: Apocryphile Press (November 1, 2004)

The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, Volume Two
The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, Volume Two The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, Volume Two

Of all the books left out of the Bible, only the Apocrypha rivals the Pseudepigrapha in popularity and importance. This edition of the Pseudepigrapha was edited by R. H. Charles and was the definitive critical edition for over 70 years.

Paperback: 800 pages
Publisher: Apocryphile Press (November 1, 2004)

The Book of Enoch
The Book of Enoch The Book of Enoch

The Book of Enoch is an ancient Jewish religious work, ascribed by tradition to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah, which played a crucial role in forming the worldview of the authors of the New Testament, who were not only familiar with it but quoted it in the New Testament, Epistle of Jude, Jude 1:14 15, and is attributed there to "Enoch the Seventh from Adam" (1 En 60:8). The text was also utilized by the community that originally collected and studied the Dead Sea Scrolls.

While some churches today include Enoch as part of the biblical canon (for example the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church), other Christian denominations and scholars accept it only as having historical or theological non-canonical interest and frequently use or assigned it as supplemental materials within academic settings to help students and scholars discover or better understand cultural and historical context of the early Christian Church.

The Book of Enoch provides commentators valuable insight into what many ancient Jews and early Christians believed when, God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets (Heb. 1:1). As Dr. Michael S. Heiser in the Introduction to his important book Reversing Hermon so powerfully notes: For those to whom 1 Enoch sounds unfamiliar, this is the ancient apocalyptic literary work known popularly (but imprecisely) as the Book of Enoch.

Most scholars believe that 1 Enoch was originally written in Aramaic perhaps as early as the 3rd century B.C. The oldest fragments of the book were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls and dated to roughly the second century B.C. This places the book squarely in the middle of what scholars call the Second Temple Period (ca. 500 B.C. 70 A.D.), an era more commonly referred to as the Intertestamental Period. This book will use the more academic designation ( Second Temple Period )

[...] The Watcher story of 1 Enoch, as many readers will recall, is an expansion of the episode described in Genesis 6:1-4, where the sons of God (Hebrew: beney ha- elohim) came in to the daughters of man (Gen 6:4; ESV). Consequently, Watchers is the Enochian term of choice (among others) for the divine sons of God. While the story of this supernatural rebellion occupies scant space in Genesis, it received considerable attention during the Second Temple Period

[...] The Enochian version of the events of Gen 6:1-4 preserves and transmits the original Mesopotamian context for the first four verses of the flood account. Every element of Gen 6:1-4 has a Mesopotamian counterpoint a theological target that provides the rationale for why these four verses wound up in the inspired text in the first place. Connections to that backstory can be found in the Old Testament, but they are scattered and unsystematically presented. This is not the case with Second Temple Jewish literature like 1 Enoch. Books like 1 Enoch preserve all of the Mesopotamian touchpoints with Gen 6:1-4 when presenting their expanded retelling of the events of that biblical passage. The Book of Enoch is therefore intended to be an important supplemental resource for assisting serious researchers and students in the study of the Bible.

Hardcover: 115 pages
Publisher: Defender Publishing (March 24, 2017)

The Urantia Book
The Urantia Book The Urantia Book


Love is truly contagious and eternally creative. (p. 2018) “Devote your life to proving that love is the greatest thing in the world.” (p. 2047) “Love is the ancestor of all spiritual goodness, the essence of the true and the beautiful.” (p. 2047) The Father’s love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man’s personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows. (p. 1289) The secret of a better civilization is bound up in the Master’s teachings of the brotherhood of man, the good will of love and mutual trust. (p. 2065)


Prayer is not a technique of escape from conflict but rather a stimulus to growth in the very face of conflict. (p. 1002) The sincerity of any prayer is the assurance of its being heard. … (p. 1639) God answers man’s prayer by giving him an increased revelation of truth, an enhanced appreciation of beauty, and an augmented concept of goodness. (p. 1002) …Never forget that the sincere prayer of faith is a mighty force for the promotion of personal happiness, individual self-control, social harmony, moral progress, and spiritual attainment. (p. 999)


There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. (p. 364) Mortals only learn wisdom by experiencing tribulation. (p. 556)


The angels of all orders are distinct personalities and are highly individualized. (p. 285) Angels....are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them. (p. 419)

Our Divine Destiny

If you are a willing learner, if you want to attain spirit levels and reach divine heights, if you sincerely desire to reach the eternal goal, then the divine Spirit will gently and lovingly lead you along the pathway of sonship and spiritual progress. (p. 381) …They who know that God is enthroned in the human heart are destined to become like him—immortal. (p. 1449) God is not only the determiner of destiny; he is man’s eternal destination. (p. 67)


Almost everything of lasting value in civilization has its roots in the family. (p. 765) The family is man’s greatest purely human achievement. ... (p. 939)


…Faith will expand the mind, ennoble the soul, reinforce the personality, augment the happiness, deepen the spirit perception, and enhance the power to love and be loved. (p. 1766) “Now, mistake not, my Father will ever respond to the faintest flicker of faith.” (p. 1733)


The story of man’s ascent from seaweed to the lordship of earthly creation is indeed a romance of biologic struggle and mind survival. (p. 731) 2,500,000,000 years ago… Urantia was a well developed sphere about one tenth its present mass. … (p. 658) 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of Urantia [Earth] history. (p. 660) 450,000,000 years ago the transition from vegetable to animal life occurred. (p. 669) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years. (p. 707) About five hundred thousand years ago…there were almost one-half billion primitive human beings on earth. … (p. 741) Adam and Eve arrived on Urantia, from the year A.D. 1934, 37,848 years ago. (p. 828)

From the Inside Flap

What’s Inside?

Parts I and II

God, the inhabited universes, life after death, angels and other beings, the war in heaven.

Part III

The history of the world, science and evolution, Adam and Eve, development of civilization, marriage and family, personal spiritual growth.

Part IV

The life and teachings of Jesus including the missing years. AND MUCH MORE…


God, …God is the source and destiny of all that is good and beautiful and true. (p. 1431) If you truly want to find God, that desire is in itself evidence that you have already found him. (p. 1440) When man goes in partnership with God, great things may, and do, happen. (p. 1467)

The Origin of Human Life, The universe is not an accident... (p. 53) The universe of universes is the work of God and the dwelling place of his diverse creatures. (p. 21) The evolutionary planets are the spheres of human origin…Urantia [Earth] is your starting point. … (p. 1225) In God, man lives, moves, and has his being. (p. 22)

The Purpose of Life, There is in the mind of God a plan which embraces every creature of all his vast domains, and this plan is an eternal purpose of boundless opportunity, unlimited progress, and endless life. (p. 365) This new gospel of the kingdom… presents a new and exalted goal of destiny, a supreme life purpose. (p. 1778)

Jesus, The religion of Jesus is the most dynamic influence ever to activate the human race. (p. 1091) What an awakening the world would experience if it could only see Jesus as he really lived on earth and know, firsthand, his life-giving teachings! (p. 2083)

Science, Science, guided by wisdom, may become man’s great social liberator. (p. 909) Mortal man is not an evolutionary accident. There is a precise system, a universal law, which determines the unfolding of the planetary life plan on the spheres of space. (p. 560)

Life after Death, God’s love is universal… He is “not willing that any should perish.” (p. 39) Your short sojourn on Urantia [Earth]…is only a single link, the very first in the long chain that is to stretch across universes and through the eternal ages. (p. 435) …Death is only the beginning of an endless career of adventure, an everlasting life of anticipation, an eternal voyage of discovery. (p. 159)

About the Author

The text of The Urantia Book was provided by one or more anonymous contributors working with a small staff which provided editorial and administrative support during the book's creation. The book bears no particular credentials (from a human viewpoint), relying instead on the power and beauty of the writing itself to persuade the reader of its authenticity.

Leather Bound: 2097 pages
Publisher: Urantia Foundation; Box Lea edition (August 25, 2015)

The Book of Jubilees
The Book of Jubilees The Book of Jubilees

The Book of Jubilees
translated by R. H. Charles

The Book of Jubilees, or, as it is sometimes called, The Little Genesis, purports to be a revelation given by God to Moses through the medium of an angel and contains a history, divided up into "jubilee periods" of 49 years, from creation to the coming of Moses. Although the actual narrative of events is only carried down to Moses's birth and early career, its author envisages the events of a later time and in particular certain events of special interest at the time he wrote, which was probably in the latter years of the 2nd century B.C. This work, though containing one or two passages of an apocalyptic character, is quite unlike the typical apocalypses. It is largely based upon the historical narratives in Genesis and Exodus, interspersed with legends and emphasizing certain legal practices (such as the strict observance of the Sabbath, circumcision, etc.). The author's main object is to inculcate a reform in the regulation of the calendar and festivals in place of the lunar calendar, which he condemns. He proposes to substitute a solar calendar consisting of 12 months and containing 364 days. The result of such a system is to make all festivals, except the Day of Atonement, fall on a Sunday--a radical idea for its day. With notes clarifying the translation, this is an important text for students of the origins of Christianity and Essene teachings.

From the Publisher:
--This text refers to an alternate kindle_edition edition.

From the Back Cover:
Also known as "the Little Genesis," the Book of Jubilees is an apocryphal book of the Old Testament that retells the book of Genesis and part of Exodus, as told to Moses on Mount Sinai by the "angel of presence."
Originally written in Hebrew around 100 BC and presented here in a translation by British scholar R. H. CHARLES (1855-1931) first published in 1917, this fascinating "lost" text is considered by many Jewish scholars to be an essential defense of traditional Judaism and of the need to maintain a separate Jewish life and culture. Students of early biblical literature will want to read this foundational text. --This text refers to an alternate kindle_edition edition.

About the Author
R.H. Charles was a noted theologian and scholar with many of his reference works remaining in print today and still of superlative scholarly value. His book, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English remains a relevant work due mainly to his superior editorial skills. He died in 1931. --This text refers to an alternate kindle_edition edition.

Print Length: 192 pages
Publisher: Kindle Edition (December 6, 2010)

The Lost Books of the Bible compiled by William Hone
The Lost Books of the Bible compiled by William Hone The Lost Books of the Bible compiled by William Hone

From the Inside Flap

Suppressed by the early church fathers who compiled the Bible, these apocryphal books have been shrouded in silence for centuries. Here are the Apostles' Creed, the girlhood and betrothal of Mary, the childhood of Jesus-told in all their warmth, intimacy and humanity. Translated from the Original Tongues, with 32 illustrations from Ancient Paintings and Missals.

Hardcover: 320 pages
Publisher: Testament; New edition edition (June 8, 1988)

The Forgotten Books of Eden compiled by Rutherford H. Platt, Jr.
The Forgotten Books of Eden compiled by Rutherford H. Platt, Jr. The Forgotten Books of Eden compiled by Rutherford H. Platt, Jr.

Collects the lost writings and omissions from the traditional Bible, from the vivid sequel to Adam and Eve's expulsion from Paradise to the beautiful songs of peace and joy from the "Odes of Solomon."

Hardcover: 231 pages
Publisher: BELL PUBLISHING COMPANY; Facsimile of 1927 ed edition (December 10, 1995)


The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English

The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English

From Library Journal

This one-volume translation of the Dead Sea Scrolls joins those of Florentino Garcia Martinez (The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated, Eerdman's, 1996) and Michael Wise and others (The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation, LJ 12/96) and is the latest edition of The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, first published in 1962. In a 90-page introduction, Vermes (emeritus, Jewish studies, Wolfson Coll., Oxford) briefly summarizes the 50-year history of scrolls research. He presents an overview of the sectarian community associated with the scrolls (whom he identifies as the Essenes), its history, and its beliefs. Though dubbed "complete" (the preface explains that "meaningless scraps or badly damaged manuscript sections are not inflicted on the reader"), Vermes's translation is generally the most selective of the three. This sometimes saves the reader from the possible frustration of line upon line of brackets and ellipses, but it gives a limited idea of the extent of the textual material available. However, the translation is good and has stood as the standard for many years. As with Bibles, libraries should have more than one version of the Dead Sea Scrolls.?Craig W. Beard, Univ. of Alabama at Birmingham Lib. Copyright 1997 Reed Business Information, Inc.

Hardcover: 648 pages
Publisher: Allen Lane / The Penguin Press; 1st edition (July 1, 1997)

Tales Of The Patriarchs

Paraphrase and comments by Lesley Faulk and Amanda Scott


The Dead Sea Scrolls



The "Tales of the Patriarchs," which deals with the descendants of Adam, is sometimes referred to as the "Genesis Apocryphon." Originally, the Genesis Apocryphon was referred to as the fourth scroll because it was the fourth scroll out of seven to be found in the Qumran Cave. This "Dead Sea Scroll" was originally thought to have come from the apocryphal book of Enoch because a small portion of the scroll that had been unraveled, mentioned Enoch's name(Fitzmeyer, pg. 4). However, when another section was unraveled, scholars were lead to believe that this scroll came from the apocryphal book of Lamech, a name that was already known to scholars because of the book Jubilees. The reason why they thought this scroll came from the book of Lamech is because the speaker spoke about Bitenosh, Lamech's wife, in first person (Yadin, pg. 144). Yet once again, this belief was wrong. When the scroll was finally fully unraveled, it had references to Noah, Abraham and Lot, making the scrolls relation to the Jubilees more apparent. In many senses one can refer to this text as a "Little Genesis" because its literary dependence on Genesis is similar to that of the Jubilees (Fitzmeyer, pg. 4).

When Avigad and Yadin published the fourth scroll, they realized that they could no longer call it the "Book of Lamech" and so they decided on the title Genesis Apocryphon to avoid any further commitments to the character of the writing contained in the scroll. Avigad stated that "these stories are based on the biblical narratives but they also deal with other subjects and details previously unknown" (Fitzmeyer, pg. 5). An example of this is in of the story of Joseph and Sarah and their time in Egypt. In column 20 of the Apocryphon, the time duration of Sarah living with the Pharaoh is given as two years unlike the bible when a time frame was not given (Yadin, pg. 144). Also, the purity of Sarah which was in question in the bible is maintained in the Genesis Apocryphon. Sarah could not have relations with the Pharaoh because the evil spirit that Joseph prayed for to God made all the men in Egypt impotent. Thus, the purity of Adam descendants were maintained (WAC, pg. 74).

However, not all scholars agreed with this title Apocryphon because as R. Meyers believes, "it evokes its counterpart, a canonical book, and consequently introduces not the Qumran literature a slight anachronism." Yet, even with some criticism, the fourth scroll is known as the Genesis Apocryphon.

Now that the debate of naming this scroll was over, the task of placing this text into a genre began. It has already been stated that this text relies heavily on the canonical Genesis, however, this scroll contains additional details that were obviously derived from some non-biblical sources. For instance, Gn 5.28-29 in the bible is the starting point for the extended narrative for columns 2-5 which are embellishments of the birth of Noah. Columns 6-17 deals with Noah, the flood, and the division of the earth between his sons. These lines can once again be compared to the Jubilees chapters 4-9. In column 18 and 19 where the narrative has shifted to Abraham. This text is the expanded version corresponds with of Gn 11.27-14. There is an obvious similarity between the working of this section to the Jubilees. In column 22, a less direct translation can be seen, with the author reverting to the free reworking of the Genesis story which has been seen in previous columns, yet not returning to the first person except for conversation itself (Fitzmeyer, pg. 6).


Frag.1 Col. 1

You should let your anger and tear out (?)... and who is the man who.. the fury of your anger..... and those who have been destroyed and killed, bereft and... and now I have stopped the prisoners.... the Great Holy One....all that he...

Frag.1 Col 2:

day of... of... and the evil for...

Frag. 2

...and they were hit from front of the lord

Col. 1

.... and with the sowing....not even the mystery of evil which....the mystery which

Col. 2.1

I thought, in my heart, that the conception was the work of the Watchers the pregnancy of the Holy Ones and that it belonged to the Giants2... and my heart was upset by this... I, Lamech, turned to my wife Bitenosh and said... Swear to me by the Most High, Great Lord, King of the Universe3...the sons of heavens, that you will truthfully tell me everything, if... You will tell me without lies... Then Bitenosh, my wife spoke harshly and she cried... and said: Oh my brother and lord! Remember my pleasure... the time of love, gasping for breath. I will tell you everything truthfully... and then my heart began to ache... When Bitenosh realized my mood had changed...Then she withheld her anger and said to me: O my lord and brother! Remember my pleasure. I swear to you by the Great Holy One, the King of the heavens... That this seed, pregnancy, and planting of fruit comes from you and not a stranger, Watcher, or son of the heaven... Why is your expression changed and your spirit saddened... I speak honestly to you... Then I, Lamech, went to my father, Methuselah, and told him everything so that he would know the truth because he is well liked... and he is in well with the Holy Ones and they share everything with him. Methuselah went to Enoch to find the truth... he will. And he went to Parvaim, where Enoch lived... He said to Enoch: O my father and lord, to whom I... I tell you! Do not be angry because I came here to you... fear before you...

Col 3

For in the days of Jared, my father...4

Col 5

Enoch...not from the sons of heaven, but from Lamech your son... I now tell you... and I reveal to you... Go tell your son Lamech... When Methuselah heard this... And with his son Lamech, he spoke... Now when I, Lamech, heard these things... Which he got out of me

Col 65

I abstained from injustice and in the womb of my mother who conceived me I searched for truth. When I emerged from my mother's womb, I lived all my days in truth and walked in the path of eternal truth. And the Holy One was with me... on my pathways truth sped to warn me off the... of lie which led to darkness.. I braced my loins with the vision of truth and wisdom... paths of violence. vacat Then, I Noah became a man that clung to truth and seized... I took Amzara, his daughter as my wife. She conceived and bore me three sons and daughters. I Then took wives from my brother's family for my sons, and I gave my daughters to my nephews according to the law of the eternal precept which Most High ordained to the sons of man. vacat And in my days, when according to my reckoning... ten jubilees had been completed, the time came for my sons to take wives for themselves... heaven, I saw in a vision and was explained and made known the actions of the sons of heaven and... the heavens. Then I hid this mystery in my heart and explained it to no one. vacat... to me and a great and... and in a message of the Holy One... and he spoke to me in a vision and he stood before me... and the message of the Great Holy One called out to me: "To you they say, O' Noah,..." and I reckoned the whole conduct of the sons of the earth. I knew and explained everything... two weeks. then the blood which the Giants had spilled... I was at ease and waited until... the holy ones with the daughters of man... The I Noah, found grace, greatness and for my entire life I have behaved righteously...I, Noah, a man...

Col. 7

God told Noah that he would rule over the earth and the seas and all they encompass. Noah was overjoyed at the idea.

Col. 10

The arc rested upon the mountain of Ararat (Hurarat). Noah atoned for the land and burned incense on the alter6.

Col. 11

God makes a covenant with Noah telling him he could no longer eat blood of any kind.

Col. 12

I placed my bow in the cloud and it became a sign for me in the cloud... the earth... it was revealed to me in the mountains7... a vineyard in the mountains of Ararat... After the flood Noah and his sons descended from the mountain. They saw the widespread devastation of the earth. After the flood Noah's children began to have his grandchildren-Sons ands daughters8. They then planted the soil and put a vineyard on Mount Lubar that produced wine four years later: On the first day of the fifth year, there was a feast at which the first wine was drank. Noah gathered his family together and they went to the alter and thanked god for saving them from the destruction of the flood.

Col 139

...They were cutting gold, silver, stones, and clay and taking some for themselves. I saw the gold and silver... iron, and they cut down all the trees and took some. I saw the sun, moon, and stars cutting and taking some for themselves... I turned to see the olive tree and behold, it was rising up and for many hours... many leaves... appeared in them. I watched the olive tree and the abundance of its leaves... they tied to it. I was greatly amazed by the tree and its leaves... the four winds of heaven were strongly blowing and they were breaking off and smashing the branches of the olive tree. The westerly wind hit first, knocking off its fruit and leaves and scattering them everywhere. Then...

Col 14

...Listen and hear! You are the great cedar... standing in front of you in a dream on the mountain tops... truth. The willow that springs from it and rises high (these are) three sons... And the one that you did see, the first willow got attached to the stump of the cedar... and the wood from it... will never separate from you. And among it posterity... will be called... will grow a wonderful plant... will stand forever. And what you saw, the willow caught the stump... the last willow... part of their branch entered10 the branch of the first tree, two sons... And what you saw, that part of their branch entered the branch of the first tree... I explained to him the mystery...

Col 15

...And that you saw all of them... They will go around, the majority of them will be evil. and what you saw, that a man came from the south, with a sickle in his hand, and bringing fire with him... who will come from the south of the land... And they will put wickedness on the fire, a;;... And he should come between... Four angels... between all nations. And they will all worship and be dumbfounded... I will honestly explain to you. And I, Noah woke up from my sleep and the Sun11.

Col. 16

Noah divided the land among his decedents.... all the land of the north as far as... this boundary, the waters of the Mediterranean.... the Tina River.

Col. 17

Noah further divided the land West, to Asshur, as far as the Tigris. He gave Aram land as far as the source of.... this Mountain of the Bull, and he crossed it westward as far as.... where the three parts met.... For Arpachshad12... He gave Gomer13 a part in the northeast t the Tina River.... To Magog14...

Col. 19

I, Abraham built and alter (at Bethel) and called to god, praising him. I then went to the Holy mountain and to Hebron15 where he lived for two years. Because there was famine in the land my family and I traveled to Egypt where grain was plentiful. I went across the branches of the Nile16 to enter Egypt, the land of the sons of Ham. I had a dream about a cedar tree and a date-palm tree. When people came to cut down the cedar tree, the date-palm tree objected, saying that they were grown from a single root. The cedar tree was spared. I became fearful of the dream and told it to my wife. I explained it as it pertained to us telling Sarah that the men will come for her and try to kill me. I warned Sarah that she must tell everyone that I am her brother so that my life can be spared. She became scared and did not want to go to Zoan for fear of being seen. Five years later17, councilors of the Egyptians court and advisors of the Pharaoh of Zoan18 came, having heard the words of my wife. They brought gifts and requested knowledge from me. I read to them from the Book of the words of Enoch.

Col. 2019

The men return to the Pharaoh and describe Sarah's features: beautiful face, supple hair, lovely eyes, pleasant nose, radiant face20. He continued on describing her shapely breasts, perfect hands, and everything down to her long and delicate fingers. the men compared her to and rated her far higher than virgins and birds, and all other women alike. Hearing this, and then seeing Sarah, the pharaoh wanted her and took her for his wife. Sarah saved me by telling the pharaoh that I was her brother and that night I and my nephew Lot cried together I prayed to Lord for justice21. I wanted the Lord to raise up against the pharaoh and protect Sarah. God listened and sent an evil spirit to the entire household that prevented the pharaoh from having sexual relations with Sarah for the two years that they were together. At the end of the two years, the plagues and afflictions were so great that magicians and healers were sent for. They were, of course, ineffective, and they all soon left. Hyrcanos went to me pleading for help against the plague because I had been seen in a dream. I agreed to help only when my wife Sarah is returned to me. The pharaoh heard this and confronted me, himself asking why I lied saying that Sarah was my sister. He agreed to give Sarah back and I exorcised the evil spirit from the house of the pharaoh. The pharaoh swore to me that he had not touched Sarah while they were together and gave her gifts of gold, silver, linen, and purple-dyed clothing. Sarah and I were then led out of Egypt. I, Sarah, Lot, and his wife took our flocks and the gold and silver I had received22 and traveled together.

Col. 21

I went to all my old campsites until I reached Bethel, the place where I once built an alter, and then I built another one and offered up burnt offerings and a cereal offerings to the God Of Most High, and invoked the name of the Lord of the Universe there. I praised God's name and blessed god and gave thanks to Him there for all the flocks and goods and wealth which he has given me, for the good he has done for me, and because He had returned me to this land safely.

After this day, Lot left me on the account of our shepherd's behavior. He went to live in the Valley of Jordan taking all his flocks with him. And I also added greatly to what he had. he pastured his flock and kept moving until he reached Sodom23 and bought a house there, while I still lived in the mountain of Bethel. It bothered me that Lot and I had separated.

God came to me in a dream and said to me: Go up to Ramat Hazor24 which is north of Bethel, the place you are living now, and look to the east, west, south and to the north. Look at the land which I am giving you and your descendants forever. The next morning I went up to Ramat Hazor and looked at the land from that height, from the river of Egypt up to Lebanon and Senir25, and from the Great Sea up to Hauran26, and all the land of Gebel27 to Qadesh28, and all the Great Desert29, as far as the Euphrates and he said to me: I shall give all this land to your descendants; and they will inherit it forever. I will multiply your descendants like the dust of the earth that none can count. Your descendants will be numberless. Arise, walk about, go "see how long and how wide it is, for I will give it to you and to your descendants after you, forever.

Then I, Abraham, went out traveling in a circuit to survey the land. I began the circuit at the Gihion River30, I went along the Mediterranean Sea until I reached the Mountain of the Bull31. I circled from the coast of this great river saltwater sea, skirting the Mount of the Bull, and continued eastward through the breadth of the and until I came to the Euphrates river. I traveled along the Euphrates until I reached the red sea in the east, whence I followed the coast of the Red Sea until I came to the branch of the Reed Sea32, jutting out from the Red Sea. From there I completed the circuit, moving southward to arrive at Gihon River. Then I returned home safely and found all is well with my men. Then I went and settled next to the oaks of Mamre33, which is northeast of Hebron. There I built an alter and offered up burnt offering and a cereal offering to the God Most High. I ate and drank there, I and all the men of my household, and invited Mamre, Arnem, and Eshkol, three Amorite brothers and my friends. They ate and drank together with me. Prior to those days Chedorlaomer, the king of Elam, Amraphel, the king of Babylon, Arioch, the king of Cappadocia34, and Tidal, the king of Goiim35, which lies between the two rivers had come. They had waged war on Bera, the king of Sodom, Birsha, the king of Gomorrah, Shinab, the king of Admah, Shemiabad, the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela. All these formed an alliance to do battle in the Valley of Siddim. Now the king of Elam, and the kings with him proved to be stronger than the king of Sodom and imposed tribute upon them. Over twelve years they continued paying their tribute to the king of Elam, but in the thirteenth they rebelled against him. Thus the fourteenth year the king of Elam sallied forth with all his allies, and they ascended by the way of the desert36. They smote and plundered beginning from the Euphrates. They kept on smiting-smiting the Rephaim who were in the Asteroth-Kernaim37, the Zumzammin who were Amman, the Emim38 who were in Shaveh-hakerioth, and the Horites who were in the mountain of Gebal-until they reached El- Paran, in the desert. They Hazazon-tamar39. The king of Sodom went out to meet him, together with the king of Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim and the king of Bela. They engaged in battle in the valley of Siddim against Chedorlaomer, and allies that were with him. The king of Sodom was defeated and put to flight while the king of Gomorrah fell into the pits... The king Elam plundered all the property of Sodom and of Gomorrah and they captured Lot.


1. The columns numbers differ between sources. This is because recent research has shown that the 1Q20 fragments comprise column 1 and 2 but are not after included with this work.

2. Lamech believes that his wife Bitenosh has been with fallen angels called Watchers or Nephilim. He fears his child may be a Giant because of this union with the Watcher.

3. Most High, Great Lord, King of the Universe are all referring to God; the names make God appear even more powerful and mighty.

4. This column contains the beginning of Enoch's reply to Methuselah. He starts talking about how in the days of Jared, angels descended to take human wives.

5. There are very few sources where this column's context is explained. Many sources attempt to hypothesize what the text is trying to get across but an agreement has yet to be established. The main thrust of this text is that Noah, after being born with the gift of knowing the truth, lived his life righteously, married, and married his children off. Finally this passage ends with Noah having a vision.

6. These are the activities that occur immediately after the flood.

7. Mountain of Ararat

8. Noah's grandsons were Arpachsad, Gomer, Magog, Madai, Yavan, Tubal, Mosok, and Tiras. Others were born, as well as granddaughters, but their names are not mentioned.

9. This column is not found in many sources and no explanations are given beyond the text. It is unclear who "they" and the significance of the olive tree. Columns 14 and 15 also have no further explanation.

10. Part of the branch possibly got entangled with

11. This passage presents the idea that Noah had been dreaming in columns 13,14,15 after he came down from the mountain.

12. Noah's firstborn grandson.

13. Son of Japhet.

14. Another son of Japhet.

15. In the bible it only states that Abraham set out, continuing on his way to Negeb with no mention of Hebron. Hebron is a town older than any other in the country-approximately 2300 years old.

16. Carmon is the branch mentioned but it is controversial whether the translation from Greek gives an actual branch of the Nile or not.

17. As with all Biblical writings, the mention of time periods is controversial. five years is not an exact time period.

18. Zoan is the old Testament name for Tanis, a town in Egypt.

19. The descriptions of Sarah's beauty provide many details that writers of the scroll believed were locking in the Old Testament.

20. This can be literally taken as "all the bloom" of her face. It suggests Sarah's god given beauty that cannot be taken away.

21. Biblical accounts do not include Abraham's praying to God.

22. This is actually interpreted incorrectly. The gifts were given to Sarah by the Pharaoh, and Abraham's wealth was independent of these gifts.

23. located in the Jordan Valley but unfortunately, no other information is given.

24. it is the highest spot in the mountains of Judea, which gives Abraham an unique view of the land.

25. Mt. Hermon which is the southern tip of the Anti-Lebanon range.

26. it is a broad, high plateau that is southeast of Mt. Hermon.

27. it is the land south of the Dead Sea.

28. associated with the Gebel, it is southeast of the Dead Sea.

29. the desert between Egypt and Palestine.

30. it is associated with the Nile River and it is undoubtedly the same as the "River of Egypt."

31. it is part of the Taurus mountain range called Mount Amanus, situated north of Alexandretta.

32. Tongue-shaped gulf of the Suez.

33. Are oak trees belonging to Mamre, the Amorite that is later mentioned in this text. Abraham settles near the oak of Ogyges.

34. kingdom located in Asia Minor.

35. A place in the Mesopotamia.

36. Syrian Desert.

37. Ashteroh is found east of Jordan.

38. Inhabitant of the ancient land of Moab.

39. Situated somewhere in the southern area of the Dead Sea.


Fitzmyer, J. 1966. The Genesis Apocryphon Of Qumran Cave I. Pontifical Biblical Institute: pgs. 1-164

Martinez, F.G. 1994. The Dead sea scrolls translated: The Qumran text in English. E.J. Brill Leiden New York: pgs. 230-237

Vermes, G. 1962. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. Penguin Press: pgs. 448-458

Wise, Abegg, Cook. 1990. Dead Sea Scrolls: A new Translation. Harper Collins Publishers: pgs. 74-85

Yadin, Y. 1957. The Message of the Scrolls. Simon and Schuster: pgs. 145-148

prepared for Intro. to the Hebrew Bible
by Lesley Faulk and Amanda Scott


# #


Rose Book of Bible Charts, Maps, and Time Lines
Rose Book of Bible Charts, Maps, and Time Lines Rose Book of Bible Charts, Maps, and Time Lines

NEW Anniversary Edition of Rose Book of Bible Charts, Maps and Timelines, Volume 1 covers over 200 Bible topics and features MORE pages, 6 EXTRA topics, updated information, and a bonus 24' fold-out on Jesus' Family Tree.

The #1 Bible Reference book celebrates its 10th anniversary with an updated 230-page edition that features more Bible maps, charts and illustrations than the original! This stunning, easy-to-understand reference book still provides the same full-color, REPRODUCIBLE Bible charts and overviews that made the original a favorite, but in an easier-to-use, updated format!

Plus! It includes over 37 ADDED pages of ALL NEW content on popular Bible topics, including Psalm 23, Lord's Prayer, the 12 Tribes of Israel, and more!

Features ALL NEW content and Updated Information, such as:

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  • Names of God
  • The Ten Commandments and You
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  • Bible Overview New Testament
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  • 100 Proofs for the Bible

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  • How We Got the Bible
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Paperback: 230 pages
Publisher: Rose Publishing; 10th Anniversary edition (March 13, 2015)

The Oxford Study Bible: Revised English Bible with Apocrypha
The Oxford Study Bible: Revised English Bible with Apocrypha The Oxford Study Bible: Revised English Bible with Apocrypha

This volume combines a cultural guide to the biblical world and an annotated Bible. Its notes feature the reflections of Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Jewish scholars.

  • Twenty-three insightful articles on aspects of the history, literary background, and culture of the biblical era.
  • A special index of people, places, and themes of the Bible.
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Paperback: 1860 pages
Publisher: Oxford University Press; 1 edition (March 12, 1992)

HarperColins Bible Dictionary
HarperColins Bible Dictionary HarperCollins Bible DictionaryHarperCollins Bible Dictionary

The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary puts the latest and most comprehensive biblical scholarship at your fingertips. Here is everything you need to know to fully understand the Old Testament, the Apocrypha, and the New Testament. An unparalleled resource, The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary explains every aspect of the Bible, including biblical archaeology, culture, related writings such as the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Bible‘s influence on Western civilization, biblical history, theological concepts, modern biblical interpretations, flora nad fauna, climate and environment, crafts and industry, the content of individual books of the bible, and more.

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  • Contributions by 193 noted experts on the Bible and the ancient Near East
  • More than 3700 entries covering the Bible from A to Z
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  • 53 color photographs
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About the Author

Paul J. Achtemeier is Professor of Biblical Interpretation at Union Theological Seminary in Richmond, Virginia. A widely respected authority on the Bible, he is the author or co-author of 14 books, former editor of the quarterly Interpretation, and New Testament editor of the Interpretation Biblical Commentary Series. Professor Achtemeier has also been chief executive officer and president of the Society of Biblical Literature, and president of the Catholic Biblical Association.

The Editorial Board of the revised edition of The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary includes associate editors; Roger S. Boraas, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Religion, Uppsala College; Michael Fishbane, Ph.D., Nathan Cummings Professor of Jewish Studies, University of Chicago Divinity School; Pheme Perkins, Ph.D., Professor of Theology (New Testament), Boston College; and William O. Walker, Jr., Ph.D., Professor of Religion, Trinity University.

The Society of Biblical Literature is a seven-thousand-member international group of experts on the Bible and related fields. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title. Review

For the maps alone, this book is worth it. Following 1,250 pages that describe and explain the people, places, terms, and events of the Bible from Aaron to Zurishaddai, the 16 spectacular maps detail the political entities and boundaries of biblical times, bringing the historic times to vivid life. A fascinating book, an impressive collection of scholarship, and a possession to cherish, the 188 contributors and five editors show what can be produced if you don't cut corners on excellence. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Hardcover: 1178 pages
Publisher: HarperOne; Rev Upd Su edition

Strongest Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible
Strongest Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible Strongest Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible

Like a redwood that towers above all other trees, The Strongest Strong’s takes James Strong’s classic concordance to unprecedented heights. Reflecting thousands of research hours, custom computer technology, and an exclusive database perfected over twenty years, The Strongest Strong’s is packed with features that make it the last word in accuracy and usefulness. No other Strong’s concordance can touch it. This is no mere study tool. Destined to become a foundational resource for Bible study the world over, The Strongest Strong’s is a landmark in biblical reference works.

What Makes This Strong’s the Strongest? Rebuilding Strong’s time-honored concordance from the ground up, biblical research experts John Kohlenberger and James Swanson have achieved unprecedented accuracy and clarity. Longstanding errors have been corrected. Omissions filled in. Word studies simplified. Thoroughness and ease of use have been united and maximized.

Kohlenberger and Swanson have also added the Nave’s Topical Bible Reference System―the world’s most complete topical Bible, updated, expanded, and streamlined to meet the needs of today’s Bible user. No other edition of Strong’s or Nave’s gives you all the information combined in The Strongest Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.

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In order to experience all the advantages of The Strongest Strong’s, you’ll have to look inside. But here is a thumbnail sketch of what awaits you:

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  • Nave’s Topical Bible Reference System supplies the complete descriptive content and references (without the Bible text) of Nave’s Topical Bible, expanded to provide a total of more than 100,000 verses indexed by subject, word, phrase, synonym, and example
  • Cross-references to places and names used in Bible translations besides the KJV
  • Word counts furnish a complete accounting of every word in the Bible
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  • Major Social Concerns of the Mosaic Covenant
  • Old Testament Sacrifices
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  • Kings of the Bible
  • Harmony of the Gospels
  • Prophecies of the Messiah Fulfilled in Jesus
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About the Author

Dr. James Strong (1822-1894) was formerly president of Troy University and professor of exegetical theology at Drew Theological Seminary.

Hardcover: 1742 pages
Publisher: Zondervan; Supesaver ed. edition (September 1, 2001)

Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary Old and New Testament

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A Nelson exclusive. Study the meaning of biblical words in the original languages-without spending years learning Greek or Hebrew. This classic reference tool has helped thousands dig deeper into the meaning of the biblical text. Explains over 6,000 key biblical words. Includes a brand new comprehensive topical index that enables you to study biblical topics more thoroughly than ever before.

Hardcover: 1184 pages
Publisher: Thomas Nelson; 2nd Edition edition (August 26, 1996)

Zondervan Pictorial Encylopedia of the Bible, Vols. 1-5
Zondervan Pictorial Encylopedia of the Bible, Vols. 1-5 The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible (5 Volume Set)

From the Back Cover

The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, the result of more than ten years of research and preparation, provides Bible students with a comprehensive and reliable library of information. Varying viewpoints of scholarship permit a well-rounded perspective on significant issues relating to doctrines, themes, and biblical interpretation. Well-organized and generously illustrated, this encyclopedia will become a frequently used resource and reference work because of its many helpful features: - More than 5,000 pages of vital information of Bible lands and people - More than 7,500 articles alphabetically arranged for easy reference - Hundreds of full-color and black-and-white illustrations, charts, and graphs - Thirty-two pages of full-color maps and hundreds of black-and-white outline maps for quick perspective and ready reference - Scholarly articles ranging across the entire spectrum of theological and biblical topics, backed by recent archaeological discoveries - Two hundred and thirty-eight contributors from around the world. The editors have brought to this encyclopedia the fruit of many years of study and research.

About the Author

Merrill C. Tenney was professor of theological studies and dean of the Graduate school of Theology at Wheaton College.

Hardcover: 5 volume set More than 5,000 pages
Publisher: Zondervan Publishing House; Second Printing edition (March 15, 1975)

Archaeology of the Bible: The Greatest Discoveries From Genesis to the Roman Era
Archaeology of the Bible: The Greatest Discoveries From Genesis to the Roman Era Archaeology of the Bible: The Greatest Discoveries From Genesis to the Roman Era

From ancient holy sites, to buried relics and treasures, National Geographic uncovers the history and the archaeological discoveries from Scripture and the biblical world. Richly illustrated and written from an objective and nondenominational perspective, author Jean-Pierre Isbouts uses the latest scientific and archaeological discoveries to place biblical stories in the framework of human history. Chapters, beginning with the dawn of human civilization and ending with present day and the future of archaeology, chronicle hundreds of sites and artifacts found in Sumer, Babylon, the Second Temple, along the route of the Exodus, and in many other regions across the Middle East. Timelines bridge hundreds of years and several empires, maps give readers a visual sense of location, while hundreds of photos and illustrations of rare artifacts and ancient places add to the visual splendor. lt concludes with details of what remains to be found and the evolving dynamic of biblical faith in an increasingly scientific world in which archaeologists make daily breakthroughs.

About the Author

JEAN-PIERRE ISBOUTS is a humanities scholar and graduate professor in the doctoral programs at Fielding Graduate University in Santa Barbara, California. He has published widely on the origins of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, including the bestseller Biblical World: An Illustrated Atlas; Young Jesus: Restoring the “Lost Years” of a Social Activist and Religious Dissident; From Moses to Muhammed; The Shared Origins of Judaism, Christianity and Islam; and The Mysteries of Jesus. An award-winning filmmaker, Isbouts has also produced Charlton Heston’s Voyage Through the Bible, The Quest for Peace, and Young Jesus.

Paperback: 352 pages
Publisher: National Geographic (October 25, 2016)


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