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Plate Tectonics: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions) Plate Tectonics: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)

Plate Tectonics: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions) Plate Tectonics: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)

The 1960s revealed a new and revolutionary idea in geological thought: that the continents drift with respect to one another. After having been dismissed for decades as absurd, the concept gradually became part of geology's basic principles. We now know that the Earth's crust and upper mantle consist of a small number of rigid plates that move, and there are significant boundaries between pairs of plates, usually known as earthquake belts.

Plate tectonics now explains much of the structure and phenomena we see today: how oceans form, widen, and disappear; why earthquakes and volcanoes are found in distinct zones which follow plate boundaries; how the great mountain ranges of the world were built. The impact of plate tectonics is studied closely as these processes continue: the Himalaya continues to grow, the Atlantic is widening, and new oceans are forming. In this Very Short Introduction Peter Molnar provides a succinct and authoritative account of the nature and mechanisms of plate tectonics and its impact on our understanding of Earth.


The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

About the Author

Peter Molnar is a Professor of Geological Sciences in the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Colorado.

Series: Very Short Introductions
Paperback: 152 pages
Publisher: Oxford University Press; 1 edition (May 1, 2015)

Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift and Mountain Building Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift and Mountain Building

Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift and Mountain Building Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift and Mountain Building

How are mountains formed? Why are there old and young mountains? Why do the shapes of South America and Africa fit so well together? Why is the Pacific surrounded by a ring of volcanoes and earthquake prone areas while the edges of the Atlantic are relatively peaceful?

Frisch and Meschede and Blakey answer all these questions and more through the presentation and explanation of the geo-dynamic processes upon which the theory of continental drift is based and which have lead to the concept of plate tectonics.

Hardcover: 212 pages
Publisher: Springer; 2011 edition (December 22, 2010)

What Is the Theory of Plate Tectonics? What Is the Theory of Plate Tectonics?

What Is the Theory of Plate Tectonics? What Is the Theory of Plate Tectonics? (Shaping Modern Science)

In 1912, German meteorologist Alfred Wegener published his groundbreaking theory of continental displacement. His theory proposed that the continents were once a single land mass but had slowly moved apart over millions of years. This book examines the scientific process behind Wegener's theory and how it challenged prevailing views of the time.

Series: Shaping Modern Science (Book 6)
Paperback: 64 pages
Publisher: Crabtree Publishing Company; 1 edition (February 28, 2011)

The Urantia Book The Urantia Book
The Urantia Book The Urantia Book


Love is truly contagious and eternally creative. (p. 2018) “Devote your life to proving that love is the greatest thing in the world.” (p. 2047) “Love is the ancestor of all spiritual goodness, the essence of the true and the beautiful.” (p. 2047) The Father’s love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man’s personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows. (p. 1289) The secret of a better civilization is bound up in the Master’s teachings of the brotherhood of man, the good will of love and mutual trust. (p. 2065)


Prayer is not a technique of escape from conflict but rather a stimulus to growth in the very face of conflict. (p. 1002) The sincerity of any prayer is the assurance of its being heard. … (p. 1639) God answers man’s prayer by giving him an increased revelation of truth, an enhanced appreciation of beauty, and an augmented concept of goodness. (p. 1002) …Never forget that the sincere prayer of faith is a mighty force for the promotion of personal happiness, individual self-control, social harmony, moral progress, and spiritual attainment. (p. 999)


There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. (p. 364) Mortals only learn wisdom by experiencing tribulation. (p. 556)


The angels of all orders are distinct personalities and are highly individualized. (p. 285) Angels....are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them. (p. 419)

Our Divine Destiny

If you are a willing learner, if you want to attain spirit levels and reach divine heights, if you sincerely desire to reach the eternal goal, then the divine Spirit will gently and lovingly lead you along the pathway of sonship and spiritual progress. (p. 381) …They who know that God is enthroned in the human heart are destined to become like him—immortal. (p. 1449) God is not only the determiner of destiny; he is man’s eternal destination. (p. 67)


Almost everything of lasting value in civilization has its roots in the family. (p. 765) The family is man’s greatest purely human achievement. ... (p. 939)


…Faith will expand the mind, ennoble the soul, reinforce the personality, augment the happiness, deepen the spirit perception, and enhance the power to love and be loved. (p. 1766) “Now, mistake not, my Father will ever respond to the faintest flicker of faith.” (p. 1733)


The story of man’s ascent from seaweed to the lordship of earthly creation is indeed a romance of biologic struggle and mind survival. (p. 731) 2,500,000,000 years ago… Urantia was a well developed sphere about one tenth its present mass. … (p. 658) 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of Urantia [Earth] history. (p. 660) 450,000,000 years ago the transition from vegetable to animal life occurred. (p. 669) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years. (p. 707) About five hundred thousand years ago…there were almost one-half billion primitive human beings on earth. … (p. 741) Adam and Eve arrived on Urantia, from the year A.D. 1934, 37,848 years ago. (p. 828)

From the Inside Flap

What’s Inside?

Parts I and II

God, the inhabited universes, life after death, angels and other beings, the war in heaven.

Part III

The history of the world, science and evolution, Adam and Eve, development of civilization, marriage and family, personal spiritual growth.

Part IV

The life and teachings of Jesus including the missing years. AND MUCH MORE…


God, …God is the source and destiny of all that is good and beautiful and true. (p. 1431) If you truly want to find God, that desire is in itself evidence that you have already found him. (p. 1440) When man goes in partnership with God, great things may, and do, happen. (p. 1467)

The Origin of Human Life, The universe is not an accident... (p. 53) The universe of universes is the work of God and the dwelling place of his diverse creatures. (p. 21) The evolutionary planets are the spheres of human origin…Urantia [Earth] is your starting point. … (p. 1225) In God, man lives, moves, and has his being. (p. 22)

The Purpose of Life, There is in the mind of God a plan which embraces every creature of all his vast domains, and this plan is an eternal purpose of boundless opportunity, unlimited progress, and endless life. (p. 365) This new gospel of the kingdom… presents a new and exalted goal of destiny, a supreme life purpose. (p. 1778)

Jesus, The religion of Jesus is the most dynamic influence ever to activate the human race. (p. 1091) What an awakening the world would experience if it could only see Jesus as he really lived on earth and know, firsthand, his life-giving teachings! (p. 2083)

Science, Science, guided by wisdom, may become man’s great social liberator. (p. 909) Mortal man is not an evolutionary accident. There is a precise system, a universal law, which determines the unfolding of the planetary life plan on the spheres of space. (p. 560)

Life after Death, God’s love is universal… He is “not willing that any should perish.” (p. 39) Your short sojourn on Urantia [Earth]…is only a single link, the very first in the long chain that is to stretch across universes and through the eternal ages. (p. 435) …Death is only the beginning of an endless career of adventure, an everlasting life of anticipation, an eternal voyage of discovery. (p. 159)

About the Author

The text of The Urantia Book was provided by one or more anonymous contributors working with a small staff which provided editorial and administrative support during the book's creation. The book bears no particular credentials (from a human viewpoint), relying instead on the power and beauty of the writing itself to persuade the reader of its authenticity.

Leather Bound: 2097 pages
Publisher: Urantia Foundation; Box Lea edition (August 25, 2015)

Plate Tectonics: An Insider's History Of The Modern Theory Of The Earth Plate Tectonics: An Insider's History Of The Modern Theory Of The Earth

Plate Tectonics: An Insider's History Of The Modern Theory Of The Earth Plate Tectonics: An Insider's History Of The Modern Theory Of The Earth

Can anyone today imagine the earth without its puzzle-piece construction of plate tectonics? The very term, "plate tectonics," coined only thirty-five years ago, is now part of the vernacular, part of everyone's understanding of the way the earth works.The theory, research, data collection, and analysis that came together in 1967 to constitute plate tectonics is one of the great scientific breakthroughs of the 20th century. Scholarly books have been written about tectonics, but none by the key scientists-players themselves. In Plate Tectonics , editor Naomi Oreskes has assembled those scientists who played key roles in developing the theory to tell - for the first time, and in their own words - the stories of their involvement in the extraordinary evolution of the theory.The book opens with an overview of the history of plate tectonics, including in-context definitions of the key terms that are discussed throughout the book. Oreskes explains how the forerunners of the theory, Wegener and du Toit, inspired how scientists working at the key academic institutions - Cambridge and Princeton Universities, Columbia University's Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory, and the University of California-San Diego's Scripps Institute of Oceanography – competed and collaborated until the theory coalesced in 1967.

Hardcover: 448 pages
Publisher: CRC Press; 1 edition (January 15, 2002)

Investigating Plate Tectonics: Earth and Space Science Investigating Plate Tectonics: Earth and Space Science

Investigating Plate Tectonics: Earth and Space Science Investigating Plate Tectonics: Earth and Space Science (Science Readers)

In this adventurous title, readers learn all about plate tectonics! A brief history of Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift introduces readers to the development of plate tectonics and how it helped form the Earth we know today. Through colorful images, helpful charts and graphs, and easy-to-read text, readers will discover such fascinating topics as magnetic pole reversal, divergent and convergent plate boundaries, the ocean-continental division, and the San Andreas Fault. A captivating lab activity is featured to encourage children to further explore geology!

About Shell Education

Rachelle Cracchiolo started the company with a friend and fellow teacher. Both were eager to share their ideas and passion for education with other classroom leaders. What began as a hobby, selling lesson plans to local stores, became a part-time job after a full day of teaching, and eventually blossomed into Teacher Created Materials. The story continued in 2004 with the launch of Shell Education and the introduction of professional resources and classroom application books designed to support Teacher Created Materials curriculum resources. Today, Teacher Created Materials and Shell Education are two of the most recognized names in educational publishing around the world.

Series: Science Readers
Paperback: 32 pages
Publisher: Teacher Created Materials; 1 edition (September 21, 2007)

Plate Tectonics, Fourth Edition Plate Tectonics, Fourth Edition

Plate Tectonics, Fourth Edition Plate Tectonics, Fourth Edition

This comprehensive text has established itself over the past 20 years as the definitive work in its fields, presenting a thorough coverage of this key area of structural geology in a way which is ideally suited to advanced undergraduate and masters courses. The thorough coverage means that it is also useful to a wider readership as an up to date survey of plate tectonics.

The fourth edition brings the text fully up to date, with coverage of the latest research in crustal evolution, supercontinents, mass extinctions. A new chapter covers the feedbacks of various Earth systems. In addition, a new appendix provides a valuable survey of current methodology.

Paperback: 288 pages
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann; 4 edition ( 30, 1997)



The Hydro-Plate Theory
The Great Flood

Dr. Walter Brown


Dr. Walter Brown is the retired director of one of the defense department's major research and development laboratories.
Dr. Walter Brown

Dr. Walter Brown is the retired director of one of the defense department's major research and development laboratories. Aired on Odyssey Channel, and perhaps affiliated with News Odyssey by United Methodist Communications.

"We can see on our planet 17 very strange features which can now be systematically explained as a result of a cataclysmic global flood who's water erupted from subterranean chambers with an energy release exceeding the explosion of ten billion hydrogen bombs.

"This expiation shows us just how rapidly major mountains formed. It explains the coal and oil deposits, the rapid continental drift, why on the ocean floor there are huge trenches and hundreds of canyons and volcanos. It explains the formation of the layers strata and most of the fossils; of the frozen mammoths, the so-called ice ages and major land canyons, especially the grand canyon.


"The pre-flood earth probably had only one very large super-continent covered with lush vegetation. There were seas and major rivers. The mountains were smaller than today's, but perhaps 9000 feet high.

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"According to the hydro plate theory, the pre-flood earth had a lot of subterranean water; about half of what is now in our oceans. This water was contained in interconnected chambers forming a thin spherical shell about half a mile thick perhaps 10 miles below the earth's surface.


"Increasing pressure in the subterranean water stretch the crust, just as the balloon stretches when the pressure inside increases.

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"Failure in the crust began with a microscopic crack which grew in both directions at about 3 miles per second. The crack, following the path of least resistance, encircled the globe in about two hours.

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"As the crack raced around the earth, the overlaying rock crust opened up like a rip in a tightly stretched cloth. The subterranean water was under extreme pressure because the weight of the 10 miles of rock pressing down on it.

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"So the water exploded violently out of the rupture. All along this globe encircling rupture fountains of water jetted supersonically almost 20 miles into the atmosphere. The spray from this enormous fountain produced torrential rains such as the earth has ever experienced, before or after.

"The bible states that all the fountains of the great deep burst open on one day. And it describes these events, about 5000 years ago, which we can now tie together scientifically.

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"Some of the water, jetting high above the cold stratosphere, froze into super-cooled ice crystals and produced some massive ice dumps; burring, suffocating and instantly freezing many animals, including the frozen mammoths of Siberia and Alaska.


"The high pressure fountains eroded the rock on both sides of the crack producing huge volumes of sediments that settled out of this muddy water all over the earth. These sediments trapped and buried plants and animals forming the fossil record.

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"This erosion widened the rupture. Eventually the width was so great that the compressed rock, beneath the subterranean chamber, sprung upward; giving birth to the mid-oceanic ridge that raps the earth like the seam of a baseball.

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"The continental plates, the hydro plates, still with lubricating water beneath them, slid downhill away from the rising mid-Atlantic ridge.

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"After the massive, slowly accelerating continental plates reached speeds of about 45 miles per hour, they ran into resistance, compressed and buckled. The portions of the hydro plate that bucked down formed ocean trenches. Those that buckled upward formed mountains. This is why the major mountain chains are parallel to the oceanic ridges from which they slid.


"The hydro plates, in sliding away from the oceanic ridges, opened up very deep ocean basins into which the flood waters retreated. On the continents each bowl shaped depression, or basin, was naturally left brim full of water; producing many post-flood lakes."

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Some material presented will contain links, quotes, ideologies, etc., the contents of which should be understood to first, in their whole, reflect the views or opinions of their editors, and second, are used in my personal research as "fair use" sources only, and not espousement one way or the other. Researching for 'truth' leads one all over the place...a piece here, a piece there. As a researcher, I hunt, gather and disassemble resources, trying to put all the pieces into a coherent and logical whole. I encourage you to do the same. And please remember, these pages are only my effort to collect all the pieces I can find and see if they properly fit into the 'reality aggregate'.

Personal Position

Personal Position:
I've come to realize that 'truth' boils down to what we 'believe' the facts we've gathered point to. We only 'know' what we've 'experienced' firsthand. Everything else - what we read, what we watch, what we hear - is what someone else's gathered facts point to and 'they' 'believe' is 'truth', so that 'truth' seems to change in direct proportion to newly gathered facts divided by applied plausibility. Though I believe there is 'truth', until someone representing the celestial realm visibly appears and presents the heavenly records of Facts And Lies In The Order They Happened, I can't know for sure exactly what "the whole truth' on any given subject is, and what applies to me applies to everyone. Until then I'll continue to ask, "what does The Urantia Book say on the subject?"
~Gail Bird Allen

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