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The Great Extinctions: What Causes Them and How They Shape Life The Great Extinctions: What Causes Them and How They Shape Life

The Great Extinctions: What Causes Them and How They Shape Life The Great Extinctions: What Causes Them and How They Shape Life

Population sizes of vertebrate species -- mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish -- have declined by 52 percent over the last 40 years. in other words, those populations around the globe have dropped by more than half in fewer than two human generations. -- World Wildlife Fund Living Planet report 2014

This book straddles an awkward boundary between being a colorful popular work and a scientific literature review.... Profusely and beautifully illustrated with figures, maps, charts, and period reconstructions. Recommended. -- Choice

A good introduction to the great puzzle that is extinction study. -- Publishers Weekly

Selected by the Scientific American Book Club and now a more affordable paperback for a far-wider audience.

For more than a century scientists have tried to identify and understand the precise processes responsible for species extinction. Solving the species extinction puzzle has become even more important, even urgent, as human populations and technologies rival sea-level change, volcanic eruptions and asteroid impacts as an extinction mechanism.

The Great Extinctions explores the search for an understanding of Earth's five great extinction events and whether the sixth is upon us already. Leading paleontologist Norman MacLeod examines the controversies and conclusions and what they mean to the efforts to preserve Earth's biodiversity.

He also reveals how, contrary to popular conception, species extinction is as natural a process as species evolution. Examining extinction over geological time, he compares ancient extinction events and uses them to predict future extinctions.

Featuring the latest scientific evidence on the subject and informative illustrations and diagrams, The Great Extinctions is an easy-to-understand presentation of a complex and controversial subject.

About the Author

Norman MacLeod is Keeper of Palaeontology at the Natural History Museum, London. He studies the origin and maintenance of form in fossil and modern organisms using mathematical models of shape variation. He also creates new mathematical tools for studying plant and animal form and develops systems for automating the identification of species.

Paperback: 208 pages
Publisher: Firefly Books; First Edition edition (January 29, 2015)

When Life Nearly Died: The Greatest Mass Extinction of All Time When Life Nearly Died: The Greatest Mass Extinction of All Time

When Life Nearly Died: The Greatest Mass Extinction of All Time When Life Nearly Died: The Greatest Mass Extinction of All Time

"The focus is the most severe mass extinction known in earth's history….The science on which the book is based is up-to-date, thorough, and balanced. Highly recommended." —Choice

Today it is common knowledge that the dinosaurs were wiped out by a meteorite impact 65 million years ago that killed half of all species then living. Far less known is a much greater catastrophe that took place at the end of the Permian period 251 million years ago: ninety percent of life was destroyed, including saber-toothed reptiles and their rhinoceros-sized prey on land, as well as vast numbers of fish and other species in the sea.

This book documents not only what happened during this gigantic mass extinction but also the recent rekindling of the idea of catastrophism. Was the end-Permian event caused by the impact of a huge meteorite or comet, or by prolonged volcanic eruption in Siberia? The evidence has been accumulating through the 1990s and into the new millennium, and Michael Benton gives his verdict at the end of the volume.

From field camps in Greenland and Russia to the laboratory bench, When Life Nearly Died involves geologists, paleontologists, environmental modelers, geochemists, astronomers, and experts on biodiversity and conservation. Their working methods are vividly described and explained, and the current disputes are revealed. The implications of our understanding of crises in the past for the current biodiversity crisis are also presented in detail. 46 illustrations.

About the Author

Michael Benton is Professor of Vertebrate Paleontology and Head of the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol. He has written over forty books, many of them standard technical works and textbooks, as well as popular books about dinosaurs and the history of life.

Paperback: 336 pages
Publisher: Thames & Hudson; 1st Pbk. Ed edition (September 1, 2005)

The Permian Extinction and the Tethys: An Exercise in Global Geology (Geological Society of America Special Paper) The Permian Extinction and the Tethys: An Exercise in Global Geology (Geological Society of America Special Paper)

The Permian Extinction and the Tethys: An Exercise in Global Geology (Geological Society of America Special Paper) The Permian Extinction and the Tethys: An Exercise in Global Geology

The extinction that wiped out 95% of the living species at the end of the Paleozoic era can be explained by the fact that when it happened, all landmasses were one continent, Pangea, with an inner ocean, the Paleo-Tethys. This ocean included the richest niches in the late Permian world and the extinctions occurred within and around it. Data from the rest of the world indicate that the extinction happened there only where it was polluted by Paleo-Tethyan spills. This book documents this history and shows that the Permian extinction was due to the global geography of the time.

Series: Geological Society of America Special Paper
Paperback: 96 pages
Publisher: Geological Society of Amer (March 15, 2009)

The Urantia Book The Urantia Book
The Urantia Book The Urantia Book


Love is truly contagious and eternally creative. (p. 2018) “Devote your life to proving that love is the greatest thing in the world.” (p. 2047) “Love is the ancestor of all spiritual goodness, the essence of the true and the beautiful.” (p. 2047) The Father’s love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man’s personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows. (p. 1289) The secret of a better civilization is bound up in the Master’s teachings of the brotherhood of man, the good will of love and mutual trust. (p. 2065)


Prayer is not a technique of escape from conflict but rather a stimulus to growth in the very face of conflict. (p. 1002) The sincerity of any prayer is the assurance of its being heard. … (p. 1639) God answers man’s prayer by giving him an increased revelation of truth, an enhanced appreciation of beauty, and an augmented concept of goodness. (p. 1002) …Never forget that the sincere prayer of faith is a mighty force for the promotion of personal happiness, individual self-control, social harmony, moral progress, and spiritual attainment. (p. 999)


There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. (p. 364) Mortals only learn wisdom by experiencing tribulation. (p. 556)


The angels of all orders are distinct personalities and are highly individualized. (p. 285) Angels....are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them. (p. 419)

Our Divine Destiny

If you are a willing learner, if you want to attain spirit levels and reach divine heights, if you sincerely desire to reach the eternal goal, then the divine Spirit will gently and lovingly lead you along the pathway of sonship and spiritual progress. (p. 381) …They who know that God is enthroned in the human heart are destined to become like him—immortal. (p. 1449) God is not only the determiner of destiny; he is man’s eternal destination. (p. 67)


Almost everything of lasting value in civilization has its roots in the family. (p. 765) The family is man’s greatest purely human achievement. ... (p. 939)


…Faith will expand the mind, ennoble the soul, reinforce the personality, augment the happiness, deepen the spirit perception, and enhance the power to love and be loved. (p. 1766) “Now, mistake not, my Father will ever respond to the faintest flicker of faith.” (p. 1733)


The story of man’s ascent from seaweed to the lordship of earthly creation is indeed a romance of biologic struggle and mind survival. (p. 731) 2,500,000,000 years ago… Urantia was a well developed sphere about one tenth its present mass. … (p. 658) 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of Urantia [Earth] history. (p. 660) 450,000,000 years ago the transition from vegetable to animal life occurred. (p. 669) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years. (p. 707) About five hundred thousand years ago…there were almost one-half billion primitive human beings on earth. … (p. 741) Adam and Eve arrived on Urantia, from the year A.D. 1934, 37,848 years ago. (p. 828)

From the Inside Flap

What’s Inside?

Parts I and II

God, the inhabited universes, life after death, angels and other beings, the war in heaven.

Part III

The history of the world, science and evolution, Adam and Eve, development of civilization, marriage and family, personal spiritual growth.

Part IV

The life and teachings of Jesus including the missing years. AND MUCH MORE…


God, …God is the source and destiny of all that is good and beautiful and true. (p. 1431) If you truly want to find God, that desire is in itself evidence that you have already found him. (p. 1440) When man goes in partnership with God, great things may, and do, happen. (p. 1467)

The Origin of Human Life, The universe is not an accident... (p. 53) The universe of universes is the work of God and the dwelling place of his diverse creatures. (p. 21) The evolutionary planets are the spheres of human origin…Urantia [Earth] is your starting point. … (p. 1225) In God, man lives, moves, and has his being. (p. 22)

The Purpose of Life, There is in the mind of God a plan which embraces every creature of all his vast domains, and this plan is an eternal purpose of boundless opportunity, unlimited progress, and endless life. (p. 365) This new gospel of the kingdom… presents a new and exalted goal of destiny, a supreme life purpose. (p. 1778)

Jesus, The religion of Jesus is the most dynamic influence ever to activate the human race. (p. 1091) What an awakening the world would experience if it could only see Jesus as he really lived on earth and know, firsthand, his life-giving teachings! (p. 2083)

Science, Science, guided by wisdom, may become man’s great social liberator. (p. 909) Mortal man is not an evolutionary accident. There is a precise system, a universal law, which determines the unfolding of the planetary life plan on the spheres of space. (p. 560)

Life after Death, God’s love is universal… He is “not willing that any should perish.” (p. 39) Your short sojourn on Urantia [Earth]…is only a single link, the very first in the long chain that is to stretch across universes and through the eternal ages. (p. 435) …Death is only the beginning of an endless career of adventure, an everlasting life of anticipation, an eternal voyage of discovery. (p. 159)

About the Author

The text of The Urantia Book was provided by one or more anonymous contributors working with a small staff which provided editorial and administrative support during the book's creation. The book bears no particular credentials (from a human viewpoint), relying instead on the power and beauty of the writing itself to persuade the reader of its authenticity.

Leather Bound: 2097 pages
Publisher: Urantia Foundation; Box Lea edition (August 25, 2015)

Gorgon: Paleontology, Obsession, and the Greatest Catastrophe in Earth's History Gorgon: Paleontology, Obsession, and the Greatest Catastrophe in Earth's History

Gorgon: Paleontology, Obsession, and the Greatest Catastrophe in Earth's History Gorgon: Paleontology, Obsession, and the Greatest Catastrophe in Earth's History

Millions of years before dinosaurs, gorgons roamed the earth. Like a creature out of Greek mythology, the gorgon was a lizard the size of a lion, with a huge head, razor-sharp teeth, reptilian eyes, a long, slashing tail and, perhaps, mammalian hair along with its reptilian scales. Then, almost in an instant, at the end of the Permian period 250 million years ago, the gorgons were gone, along with most other major land and maritime species, both plants and animals. The Permian extinction was greater than the catastrophe that killed off the dinosaurs. Paleontologist Ward (Rare Earth; The End of Evolution; etc.) recounts in this memoir his decade-long search in South Africa's Karoo Desert for clues to the cause of this extinction. By studying the fossil record in the Karoo, Ward concluded, contrary to accepted belief, that the extinction took place simultaneously on land and in the sea, rather than in two stages, and that the gorgon was in essence asphyxiated by a decrease of oxygen in the atmosphere, caused by a series of catastrophes that began with the dropping of sea levels. Some readers may wish Ward had cut to the chase and arrived at his conclusions a chapter or two sooner and focused less on elements of personal memoir, but young people aspiring to be the next Indiana Jones will learn from this realistic account of the quotidian details and battles of fieldwork. 16 pages of b&w photos not seen by PW. Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Hardcover: 288 pages
Publisher: Viking Adult; 1st edition (January 19, 2004)

The Great Paleozoic Crisis The Great Paleozoic Crisis

The Great Paleozoic Crisis The Great Paleozoic Crisis

Carefully examines the events recorded at the major Permo-Triassic boundary sections and documents the patterns of extinction and survival among the major groups of marine and terrestrial plants and animals. Erwin also provides a detailed summary of the climatic, geologic, geophysical and geochemical events of the Late Permian and Early Triassic.

Series: The Critical Moments and Perspectives in Earth History and Paleobiology
Paperback: 327 pages
Publisher: Columbia University Press; Reprint edition (April 15, 1993)

Extinction: How Life on Earth Nearly Ended 250 Million Years Ago Extinction: How Life on Earth Nearly Ended 250 Million Years Ago

Extinction: How Life on Earth Nearly Ended 250 Million Years Ago Extinction: How Life on Earth Nearly Ended 250 Million Years Ago

Some 250 million years ago, the earth suffered the greatest biological crisis in its history. Around 95% of all living species died out--a global catastrophe far greater than the dinosaurs' demise 65 million years ago. How this happened remains a mystery. But there are many competing theories. Some blame huge volcanic eruptions that covered an area as large as the continental United States; others argue for sudden changes in ocean levels and chemistry, including burps of methane gas; and still others cite the impact of an extraterrestrial object, similar to what caused the dinosaurs' extinction.

Extinction is a paleontological mystery story. Here, the world's foremost authority on the subject provides a fascinating overview of the evidence for and against a whole host of hypotheses concerning this cataclysmic event that unfolded at the end of the Permian.

After setting the scene, Erwin introduces the suite of possible perpetrators and the types of evidence paleontologists seek. He then unveils the actual evidence--moving from China, where much of the best evidence is found; to a look at extinction in the oceans; to the extraordinary fossil animals of the Karoo Desert of South Africa. Erwin reviews the evidence for each of the hypotheses before presenting his own view of what happened.

Although full recovery took tens of millions of years, this most massive of mass extinctions was a powerful creative force, setting the stage for the development of the world as we know it today.

Paperback: 320 pages
Publisher: Princeton University Press (April 21, 2008)



The Case
of the
Permian Extinction

Retrieved from
by Gail Bird Allen
March 16, 2018



The Case

A Permian coral reef.
A Permian coral reef.
A Permian scene. Two Dimetrodon stroll past a pool with an emerging Eryops. The trees on the left are Calamites.
A Permian scene. Two Dimetrodon stroll past a pool with an emerging Eryops. The trees on the left are Calamites.
The coiled sponge Girtyocoelia stands in a Permian shallow-water sea. At right center are several Meekella brachiopods
The coiled sponge Girtyocoelia stands in a Permian shallow-water sea. At right center are several Meekella brachiopods

of the
Permian Extinction


At the end of the Permian period, the world was becoming increasingly warm (Newell 1953). Along with this rise in temperature, much of the ocean's water evaporated, causing a drop in sea level of up to 200 meters (Gall 1998). In addition, the continents converged to form the super-continent Pangea and super-ocean Panthalassa. By examining the structure and number of stomata on fossilized plants, scientists have concluded that Carbon Dioxide levels were much Higher and atmospheric Oxygen levels were much lower than those of today (Gall1998).

The Permo-triassic Boundary (PTB) featured the largest extinction the world has ever experienced. Although Mass extinctions have occurred in the past, this particular occurrence is remarkable in that it took place in a relatively short period of time. Scientists estimate that approximately 85% of all marine species (predominately invertebrates) and 70% of all terrestrial species went extinct in less than one million years (Bowring 1998). Braciopods by far suffered the largest casualties, but other victims include Acritarchs, Archaeocyathids, Molluscs, Echinoderms, Gusulinid Foraminifera, Corals, Diatoms, Dinoflagellates, Stromatoporoids, and Trilobites (Hooper Virtual Palaentological Museum 1999). So great was this die-out that fungal species were temporarily the dominant form of terrestrial life (Monastersky 1996). Causes of this catastrophe are yet unknown, but several theories have been suggested. This project, created by Audrey Johnson and Doug Blevins, seeks to present and examine these ideas.

Theories of Causes:

Many theories have been presented for the cause of the Permian - Triassic Extinction. These include volcanism, plate tectonics, anoxia of oceans, super nova explosions, severe weather, changes in sea level and atmospheric gas levels, climate change, and collision with a meteorite or comet. Here are these ides in more detail:

Collision of a Meteorite of Comet and Severe Weather patterns:


If a meteorite or comet struck the earth, its aftermath would either weaken or kill much of the life that thrived during this time. Release of debris and CO2 into the atmosphere would reduce the productivity of life and cause both global warming and ozone depletion. Indeed, evidence of increased levels of atmospheric levels of CO2 exist in the fossil record. A bolide impact from an icy, carbon-rich comet could produce such a change. Volcanic activity, on the other hand, could also produce the same effects. Material from the Earth's mantle (released during volcanic eruption) has also been shown to contain Iridium, an element commonly found in meteorites(BBC 1999). Other than changes in atmospheric carbon, no evidence exists for this theory. This does not, however, rule it impossible (Bowring 1998).

It has also been proposed that such a collision would heat up ocean waters enough to produce "hypercanes". These violent storms feature high winds (near the speed of sound) and enormous vortecies. Conditions of this strength would be capable of demolishing forests and other ecosystems (Lomb, 1999). Although not impossible, this theory has little supporting evidence. **Image courtesy of  Star Dust**

Supernova Explosion:


University of Chicago astrophysicist David Schramm has proposed a theory of a supernova causing ozone depletion. A super nova occurring 30 light years away from earth would release enough gamma radiation to destroy the ozone layer for several years. Subsequent exposure to direct, undiluted ultra-violet radiation would weaken or kill nearly all existing species. Only those living deeper in the ocean would be spared. Statistical frequency of Supernovae suggests that one could have easily occurred at the PT Boundry. Sediments contain records of short-term ozone destruction (large amounts of NOx gasses and C14 plus "global and atmospheric cooling" ) (Ross 1995). Present day observations of ozone depletion demonstrate the harmful effects of UV radiation on life. Genetic damage and cancers rank amoung the most prevalent effects. With sufficient destruction of the ozone layer, these problems could culminate in widespread destruction of life.

As a relatively new suggestion, this theory does not have much evidence either for or against it. It is a possibility, but more information is needed to determine its probablility. ** Graphic from  Global Change class website**

Sea -level changes and Contental Drift:

Around the time of the Permian Extinction, the continents joined to form the  super-continent Pangea and the super-ocean Panthalassa. This would radically decrease the range of shallow aquatic environments and put unnecessary stress on others. Several marine ecosystems would not be able to survive such drastic changes; their members would subsequently perish (Wingall 1996). Decrease in sea level is brought about by evaporation, glaciation, or shifts in topograhpy (Gall 1998). Warm, shallow aquatic ecosystems are very susceptible to even the slightest changes in sea level (BBC 1999). As with the formation of Pangea, few organisms could have thrived in a drasticaly changing envirnonment.

In addition to decreasing sea levels, the formation of a super continent would undoubtedly disrupt oceanic circulation. The waters would stagnate (causing a decrease in the flow of nutrients) and weather patterns would be adversely affected. Both of these changes would disrupt or destroy shallow, marine habitats .

The destruction of terrestrial life and the sudden nature of this event weaken both of these arguments. Since both aquatic and land-dwelling organisms suffered similar destruction rates (Kozur 1998), the Permian extinction must have a global cause. Also, very gradual changes, such as continental drift, could not have cause such a rapid decrease in biodiversity (Bowring 1998). These may have contributed to the overall effect, but certainly were not the sole explanation.

Volcanic activity:


The Permian - Triassic Boundry was marked with many volcanic eruptions, which can be described by plume tectonics. Plume tectonics is a theory which involves sending a heat pulse, produced by reactions between the Earth's core and mantle, toward its surface. This heat pulse melts the crust and eruptions of thousands of cubic kilometers of basaltic lava result. This eruption of the Siberian Traps, a range in Northern Eurasia, which spewed tons of CO2 and Sulfur gasses into the atmosphere, is the largest known eruption in the history of our planet (Cowen 1999). This eruption produced acid rain that could have severely weakend life. If growth were sufficiently retarded, other stressful events could have resulted in extinction (Bowring 1998). As with the comet theory, layers of Iridium, which are also produced by volcanic eruptions, exist as evidence of this hypothesis. This idea, however, has more geologic support than that of the comet. **Graphic courtesy of  Dick Rasp**

Concentration of CO2 and Anoxia:

Because volcanic activiy affects the concentration of atmospheric gasses, it indirectely effects the concentration of oceanic dissolved gasses. Increases in carbon dioxide concentration aid the green house effect, and cause global warming. Scientists believe that this warming lessened the temperature gradient between the equator and the poles. As a result, thermo-haline circulation would slow and eventually stop (Wingnall 1996). The oceans would stagnate, and nutrients would fail to disperse themselves. Many marine ecosystems rely on upwelling and circulation of nutrients, oxygen included. Without the regular circulation, organisms would starve and/or suffocate (Monastersky 1996).


In addition, Sulfur and particulates contribute to cooling, or volcanic winter, which usually lasts three to six months (Kozur 1998). Combinations of the two could produce a warming-cooling cycle, in which the climate alternatively warms then cools. Fluctuations in temperature, which are evident in the fossil record, could cause connective overturn of the oceans (Bowring 1998). This would have a series of detrimental effects on marine and indirectely on terrestrial life. Connective overturn, or the sudden inversion of surface and deep water due to differences in temperature, would bring more CO2-rich, anoxic bottom waters to the surface (Wingnall 1996). In an already oxygen deprived envirnoment, this is a death sentence. According to Urainium/Thorium Ratios of late Permian sediments, the oceans were severely anoxic around the time of the extinction (Bowring 1998). This theory is by no means proven, but a wealth of evidence supports it. **Graphic courtesy of Scott Veirs**


The truth probaly includes several of these hypotheses. Never before and never since has the earth seen such widespread extinction. As Michael Lomb said on the first page of his 1999 essay, "The Permain Extinction, Earth's Greatest Catastrophe", "It's not easy to destroy most of life on Earth." Whatever caused this extinction was a mighty force. It's unlikely that any of these thoeries alone caused the Permian Extinction. Undoubtedly, many factors contributed to the die - off of so many of earth's spieces. In all probablility, volcanic activity and climate - induced changes in the oceans added to the severity of the event. Perhaps contental drift and slower global cycles laid the groundwork for this catastrophe. As of today, nobody knows the precise cause of the Permian Extinction, but the "Murder on the Orient Express" theory, proposed by Douglas Erwin in 1993, is most likely correct. It states that everything in the earth is inter -related, and as such, many factors influence each other. Changes as drastic as the Permian extinction are the product of many forces, which together cause widespread disruption. Research still continues on this topic, and our knowledge is expanding. Perhaps future discoveries will reveal the answer.

Summary of Extinction Events:

The Permian Period, which directely proceeded the Triassic, lasted from approximately 286 million years ago (mya) to 248 mya (Gall 1998). Analyzation of Uranium and Lead deposits in sediments of this time has placed the Permian - Triassic Boundry (PTB) at 250 to 251mya. This period ended with the mass extinction of the majority of life on the planet. Originally, scientists believed this was a gradual die-off, which took place over several million years. Now, due to geochronology, it was proven to have lasted less than one million years (from 252.3mya to 251.4mya +/- 300 000 years) (Bowring 1998). In such a short period of time (geologically speaking), about 85% of all marine species and 70% of all terrestrial species went extinct (Kozur, 1998). This catastrophe affected all regions equally. In opposition to popular belief, all organisms, regardless of habitat, suffered similar rates of extinction (Curran 1997). Such equality suggests that the cause of the event was a global, not local, occurrence.

Although several theories have been suggested, some are more accurate than others. We do not know the true cause of this extinction, but we can rule out some of these ideas. Because the extinction only lasted for approximately one million years and affected both terrestrial and marine habitats equally, gradual changes, as well as purely marine explanations, are unlikely answers to the problem. They may have contributed to the overall effect, but they cannot be the sole source of the crisis (Bowring 1998). Because of the sheer magnitude of this extinction event, many different factors probably contributed to its occurrence. **Graphic from  Global Change class website**

Geological epoch time spiral
Geological epoch time spiral
Courtesy of the Global Change class website


Bartlett, Kristina. December 1998. Closing on Extinction Rates. Geotimes. Vol 43, Issue 12: 7.

BBC, "Theories of Mass Extinction: Climate Change Theory". Unknown. <> (29 November 1999).

BBC, "Theories of Mass Extinction: Sea Level Theory". Unknown. <> (29 November 1999).

Bowring, S.A., Erwin, d.H., Jin, Y.G., Martin, M.W., Davidek, K., and Wang, W., U/Pb Zircon Geochronology and Tempo of the End-Permian Mass Extinction. may 15, 1998. Science. Vol280: 1035 - 1045.

Cowen, Richard. "The Permo-Triassic Extinction". 1999 . <> (5 December 1999).

Curran, Chris. "An Equal Oppurtunity Extinction? Cincinnati Geologists Find Global Impact of Permian Die-off". 1997. <> (29 Nov 1999).

Frakes, L.A., Francis, J.E., and Syktus, J.I. 1992. Climate Modes of the Phanerzoic. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Gall, J.C., Grauvogel-Stamm, L. Nel, A., Papier, F. January 1998. Permian mass Extinction and Triassic Recovery. Comptes Rendus De L Academie Des Sciences Serie II Fascicule A-Sciences De Lo Terre Et Des Planetes. Vol326:1-12.

Grimm, K.A., Simpson, K., and Lambertson, M.N., "The Permian Reef Complex (Delaware Basin) of Texas" Undated <> (4 Dec. 1999).

Hooper Virtual Palaeontological Museum. "Speculated Causes of the Permian Extinction" 1996. <> (29 November 1999).

Kozur, H.W., November 1998. Some Aspects of the Permian-Triassic Boundry (PTB) and Possible Causes For the Biotic Crisis Around This Boundry. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. Vol 143: 227-272.

Lomb, Michael. "The Permian Extinction, Earth's Greatest Catastrophe" 16 March 1999. <>(5 December1999).

Monastersky, R., 26 May 1998. Death Swept Earth at End of Permian. Science News. Vol 153, Issue 20: 308-309.

Monastersky, R., 16 March 1996. Fungi Stand Alone. Science News. Vol 149, No 11: 164.

Monastersky, Richard, 25 May 1996. Oxygen Starvation Decimated Permian Oceans. Science News. Vol 149, Issue 21: 326 - 327.

Newell, Norman D., Rigby, J. Keith, Fischer, Alfred G., Whiteman, A. J., Hickox, John E., Bradley, John S., 1953. The Permian Reef Complex of the Guadalupe Mountains Region, Texas and New Mexico. W. H. Freeman & Company, San Fransico, California.

Rampino, Michael R., May 1998. Evidence for abrupt Latest Permian Mass Extinction of Foraminifera: Results of test for the Signor -Lipps Effect. Geology. Vol 26, Issue 5: 415.

Rasp, Dick, "Hawaii Volcanoes-National Park" 5 Nov 1999 <> (5 Dec 1999).

Ross Ph. D., Hugh, "Permian Extinction Update". 1995. <> (5 Dec 1999).

Seaborg, "The Permian" Undated <> (4 Dec. 1999).

Scotese, C. R., "At the end of the Permian was the Greatest Extinction of all times." 1997 <> (29 Nov 1999).

Star Dust, "Star Dust". 1999 <> (5 Dec 1999).

Trott, Shane Mass Extinction Debate - Carbon Dioxide Responsible for Permian Mass Extinction? New York Times. 1996 July 30.

Veirs, Scott, "Explore Aquarium" 8 Aug 1999 <> (5 Dec. 1999).

Wignall, Paul B., April 1999. Evidence for Abrupt Latest permian mass Extinction of Forminifera: Results of test for fhe Signor-Lipps Effect. Geology. Vol 27, Issue 4: 383.

Wignall, Paul, and Twitchett, Richard J., 24 May 1996. Science. Ocean Anoxia and the End Permian Mass Extinction. Vol 272:1155-1158.

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Some material presented will contain links, quotes, ideologies, etc., the contents of which should be understood to first, in their whole, reflect the views or opinions of their editors, and second, are used in my personal research as "fair use" sources only, and not espousement one way or the other. Researching for 'truth' leads one all over the place...a piece here, a piece there. As a researcher, I hunt, gather and disassemble resources, trying to put all the pieces into a coherent and logical whole. I encourage you to do the same. And please remember, these pages are only my effort to collect all the pieces I can find and see if they properly fit into the 'reality aggregate'.

Personal Position

Personal Position:
I've come to realize that 'truth' boils down to what we 'believe' the facts we've gathered point to. We only 'know' what we've 'experienced' firsthand. Everything else - what we read, what we watch, what we hear - is what someone else's gathered facts point to and 'they' 'believe' is 'truth', so that 'truth' seems to change in direct proportion to newly gathered facts divided by applied plausibility. Though I believe there is 'truth', until someone celestial who 'knows' all the facts parts the heavens and throws us a scroll titled "Here Are ALL The Facts And Lies In The Order They Happened," I can't know for sure exactly what "the whole truth' on any given subject is, and what applies to me applies to everyone.
~Gail Bird Allen

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