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Ancient America, in Notes on American Archaeology Ancient America, in Notes on American Archaeology (Illustrated)

Ancient America, in Notes on American Archaeology (Illustrated) Ancient America, in Notes on American Archaeology (Illustrated)

“If, as seems most likely, there was in South America an ancient development of civilized human life, out of which arose the civilizations found in Peru and Central America, its antiquity was much greater than can be comprehended by the current chronologies.” -John D. Baldwin, a confidant to many notable thinkers of his time, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Charles Darwin, James Russell Lowell, and particularly his friend Charles Sumner.

John D. Baldwin asserts that the origins of human civilization arose among an Arabian or Northeast African people, the Cushites, in pre-historic times.


  • I. ANCIENT AMERICA.—THE MOUND-BUILDERS Works of the Mound-Builders. Extent of their Settlements. Their Civilization. Their Ancient Mining Works.
  • II. ANTIQUITY OF THE MOUND-BUILDERS How long were they here?
  • III. WHO WERE THE MOUND-BUILDERS? Not Ancestors of the Wild Indians. Brereton’s Story. American Ethnology. Who the Mound-Builders were.
  • IV. MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA Their Northern Remains. The “Seven Cities of Cevola.” Central Mexico. The great Ruins at the South.
  • V. MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA Palenque. Copan and Quiragua. Mitla. An Astronomical Monument. Ruins farther South. The Ruins in Yucatan. Mayapan. Uxmal. Kabah. Chichen-Itza. Other Ruins.
  • VI. ANTIQUITY OF THE RUINS Distinct Eras traced. Nothing perishable left. “The Oldest of Civilizations.” American Cities seen by Tyrians.
  • VII. WHENCE CAME THIS CIVILIZATION? The “Lost Tribes of Israel.” The “Malay” Theory. The Phœnician Theory. The “Atlantic” Theory. It was an original Civilization.
  • VIII. AMERICAN ANCIENT HISTORY The Old Books not all lost. The Ancient History sketched. The Toltecs our Mound-Builders. Some confirmation of the History
  • IX. THE AZTEC CIVILIZATION The Discovery and Invasion. The City of Mexico. The Conquest. Who were the Aztecs? They came from the South.
  • X. ANCIENT PERU The Spanish Hunt for Peru. The Ruins near Lake Titicaca. Other Ruins in Peru. The great Peruvian Roads. The Peruvian Civilization.
  • XI. PERUVIAN ANCIENT HISTORY Garcilasso’s History. Fernando Montesinos. His Scheme of Peruvian History. Probabilities. Conclusion.
    • A. The Northmen in America.
    • B. The Welsh in America.
    • C. Antiquities of the Pacific Islands.
    • D. Deciphering the Inscriptions

About the Author

Dr. Baldwin is a native of Alabama and received his B.A. in History from Talladega College. He then received an M.A. degree in Black Church Studies followed by a M.Div. degree in Theology at Colgate-Rochester Divinity School in Rochester, New York. In 1980 Dr. Baldwin earned a Ph.D. degree in American Christianity from Northwestern University. He has taught at Wooster College in Ohio, Colgate University in New York, Colgate-Rochester Divinity School and currently is Professor in Religious Studies at Vanderbilt University. Dr. Baldwin is the author of over sixty articles and several books, and he and his wife live in Nashville, TN. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Paperback: 134 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (March 23, 2015)

1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus

1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus

In this groundbreaking work of science, history, and archaeology, Charles C. Mann radically alters our understanding of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus in 1492.

Contrary to what so many Americans learn in school, the pre-Columbian Indians were not sparsely settled in a pristine wilderness; rather, there were huge numbers of Indians who actively molded and influenced the land around them. The astonishing Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan had running water and immaculately clean streets, and was larger than any contemporary European city. Mexican cultures created corn in a specialized breeding process that it has been called man’s first feat of genetic engineering. Indeed, Indians were not living lightly on the land but were landscaping and manipulating their world in ways that we are only now beginning to understand. Challenging and surprising, this a transformative new look at a rich and fascinating world we only thought we knew.

About the Author

Charles C. Mann, a correspondent for The Atlantic, Science, and Wired, has written for Fortune, The New York Times, Smithsonian, Technology Review, Vanity Fair, and The Washington Post, as well as for the TV network HBO and the series Law & Order. A three-time National Magazine Award finalist, he is the recipient of writing awards from the American Bar Association, the American Institute of Physics, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the Lannan Foundation. His 1491 won the National Academies Communication Award for the best book of the year. He lives in Amherst, Massachusetts.

Paperback: 541 pages
Publisher: Vintage Books; 1st edition (October 10, 2006)

The Ancient Giants Who Ruled America: The Missing Skeletons and the Great Smithsonian Cover-Up The Ancient Giants Who Ruled America: The Missing Skeletons and the Great Smithsonian Cover-Up

The Ancient Giants Who Ruled America: The Missing Skeletons and the Great Smithsonian Cover-Up The Ancient Giants Who Ruled America

A study of the substantial evidence for a former race of giants in North America and its 150-year suppression by the Smithsonian Institution

  • • Shows how thousands of giant skeletons have been found, particularly in the Mississippi Valley, as well as the ruins of the giants’ cities
  • • Explores 400 years of giant finds, including newspaper articles, first person accounts, state historical records, and illustrated field reports
  • • Reveals the Stonehenge-era megalithic burial complex on Catalina Island with over 4,000 giant skeletons, including kings more than 9 feet tall
  • • Includes more than 100 rare photographs and illustrations of the lost evidence

Drawing on 400 years of newspaper articles and photos, first person accounts, state historical records, and illustrated field reports, Richard J. Dewhurst reveals not only that North America was once ruled by an advanced race of giants but also that the Smithsonian has been actively suppressing the physical evidence for nearly 150 years. He shows how thousands of giant skeletons have been unearthed at Mound Builder sites across the continent, only to disappear from the historical record. He examines other concealed giant discoveries, such as the giant mummies found in Spirit Cave, Nevada, wrapped in fine textiles and dating to 8000 BCE; the hundreds of red-haired bog mummies found at sinkhole “cenotes” on the west coast of Florida and dating to 7500 BCE; and the ruins of the giants’ cities with populations in excess of 100,000 in Arizona, Oklahoma, Alabama, and Louisiana.

Dewhurst shows how this suppression began shortly after the Civil War and transformed into an outright cover-up in 1879 when Major John Wesley Powell was appointed Smithsonian director, launching a strict pro-evolution, pro-Manifest Destiny agenda. He also reveals the 1920s’ discovery on Catalina Island of a megalithic burial complex with 6,000 years of continuous burials and over 4,000 skeletons, including a succession of kings and queens, some more than 9 feet tall--the evidence for which is hidden in the restricted-access evidence rooms at the Smithsonian.

About the Author

Richard J. Dewhurst is the Emmy Award-winning writer of the HBO feature documentary Dear America: Letters Home from Vietnam. A graduate of NYU with degrees in journalism, film, and television, he has written and edited for the History Channel, the Arts & Entertainment Channel, PBS, Fox Television and Fox Films, ABC News, TNT, Paramount Pictures, and the Miami Herald. He lives in Vermont.

Paperback: 368 pages
Publisher: Bear & Company; 1 edition (December 27, 2013)

The Urantia Book The Urantia Book
The Urantia Book The Urantia Book


Love is truly contagious and eternally creative. (p. 2018) “Devote your life to proving that love is the greatest thing in the world.” (p. 2047) “Love is the ancestor of all spiritual goodness, the essence of the true and the beautiful.” (p. 2047) The Father’s love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man’s personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows. (p. 1289) The secret of a better civilization is bound up in the Master’s teachings of the brotherhood of man, the good will of love and mutual trust. (p. 2065)


Prayer is not a technique of escape from conflict but rather a stimulus to growth in the very face of conflict. (p. 1002) The sincerity of any prayer is the assurance of its being heard. … (p. 1639) God answers man’s prayer by giving him an increased revelation of truth, an enhanced appreciation of beauty, and an augmented concept of goodness. (p. 1002) …Never forget that the sincere prayer of faith is a mighty force for the promotion of personal happiness, individual self-control, social harmony, moral progress, and spiritual attainment. (p. 999)


There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. (p. 364) Mortals only learn wisdom by experiencing tribulation. (p. 556)


The angels of all orders are distinct personalities and are highly individualized. (p. 285) Angels....are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them. (p. 419)

Our Divine Destiny

If you are a willing learner, if you want to attain spirit levels and reach divine heights, if you sincerely desire to reach the eternal goal, then the divine Spirit will gently and lovingly lead you along the pathway of sonship and spiritual progress. (p. 381) …They who know that God is enthroned in the human heart are destined to become like him—immortal. (p. 1449) God is not only the determiner of destiny; he is man’s eternal destination. (p. 67)


Almost everything of lasting value in civilization has its roots in the family. (p. 765) The family is man’s greatest purely human achievement. ... (p. 939)


…Faith will expand the mind, ennoble the soul, reinforce the personality, augment the happiness, deepen the spirit perception, and enhance the power to love and be loved. (p. 1766) “Now, mistake not, my Father will ever respond to the faintest flicker of faith.” (p. 1733)


The story of man’s ascent from seaweed to the lordship of earthly creation is indeed a romance of biologic struggle and mind survival. (p. 731) 2,500,000,000 years ago… Urantia was a well developed sphere about one tenth its present mass. … (p. 658) 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of Urantia [Earth] history. (p. 660) 450,000,000 years ago the transition from vegetable to animal life occurred. (p. 669) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years. (p. 707) About five hundred thousand years ago…there were almost one-half billion primitive human beings on earth. … (p. 741) Adam and Eve arrived on Urantia, from the year A.D. 1934, 37,848 years ago. (p. 828)

From the Inside Flap

What’s Inside?

Parts I and II

God, the inhabited universes, life after death, angels and other beings, the war in heaven.

Part III

The history of the world, science and evolution, Adam and Eve, development of civilization, marriage and family, personal spiritual growth.

Part IV

The life and teachings of Jesus including the missing years. AND MUCH MORE…


God, …God is the source and destiny of all that is good and beautiful and true. (p. 1431) If you truly want to find God, that desire is in itself evidence that you have already found him. (p. 1440) When man goes in partnership with God, great things may, and do, happen. (p. 1467)

The Origin of Human Life, The universe is not an accident... (p. 53) The universe of universes is the work of God and the dwelling place of his diverse creatures. (p. 21) The evolutionary planets are the spheres of human origin…Urantia [Earth] is your starting point. … (p. 1225) In God, man lives, moves, and has his being. (p. 22)

The Purpose of Life, There is in the mind of God a plan which embraces every creature of all his vast domains, and this plan is an eternal purpose of boundless opportunity, unlimited progress, and endless life. (p. 365) This new gospel of the kingdom… presents a new and exalted goal of destiny, a supreme life purpose. (p. 1778)

Jesus, The religion of Jesus is the most dynamic influence ever to activate the human race. (p. 1091) What an awakening the world would experience if it could only see Jesus as he really lived on earth and know, firsthand, his life-giving teachings! (p. 2083)

Science, Science, guided by wisdom, may become man’s great social liberator. (p. 909) Mortal man is not an evolutionary accident. There is a precise system, a universal law, which determines the unfolding of the planetary life plan on the spheres of space. (p. 560)

Life after Death, God’s love is universal… He is “not willing that any should perish.” (p. 39) Your short sojourn on Urantia [Earth]…is only a single link, the very first in the long chain that is to stretch across universes and through the eternal ages. (p. 435) …Death is only the beginning of an endless career of adventure, an everlasting life of anticipation, an eternal voyage of discovery. (p. 159)

About the Author

The text of The Urantia Book was provided by one or more anonymous contributors working with a small staff which provided editorial and administrative support during the book's creation. The book bears no particular credentials (from a human viewpoint), relying instead on the power and beauty of the writing itself to persuade the reader of its authenticity.

Leather Bound: 2097 pages
Publisher: Urantia Foundation; Box Lea edition (August 25, 2015)

North American Archaeology North American Archaeology

North American Archaeology North American Archaeology

This volume offers a rich and informative introduction to North American archaeology for all those interested in the history and culture of North American natives.

  • Organized around central topics and debates within the discipline.
  • Illustrated with case studies based on the lives of real people, to emphasize human agency, cultural practice, the body, issues of inequality, and the politics of archaeological practice.
  • Highlights current understandings of cultural and historical processes in North America and situates these understandings within a global perspective.

Paperback: 416 pages
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell; 1 edition (December 27, 2004)

Archaeology of Native North America Archaeology of Native North America

Archaeology of Native North America Archaeology of Native North America

This comprehensive text is intended for the junior-senior level course in North American Archaeology. Written by accomplished scholar Dean Snow, this new text approaches native North America from the perspective of evolutionary ecology. Succinct, streamlined chapters present an extensive groundwork for supplementary material, or serve as a core text.The narrative covers all of Mesoamerica, and explicates the links between the part of North America covered by the United States and Canada and the portions covered by Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and the Greater Antilles. Additionally, book is extensively illustrated with the author's own research and findings.

About the Author

Dean R. Snow is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Penn State University. He is an archaeologist who specializes in ethnohistoric and demographic problems. In recent years his work has led him into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approaches to these issues. He has conducted research in Mexico and in the northeastern region of North America, where his work on the Iroquois is particularly well known. His current research includes cyberinfrastructure and the development of large GIS databases designed to explore large-scale population movements over time and space. He is also currently researching the sexual dimorphism of human handprints and hand stencils in the Upper Paleolithic caves of France and Spain.

Paperback: 408 pages
Publisher: Routledge; 1 edition (October 1, 2009)

The Suppressed History of America: The Murder of Meriwether Lewis and the Mysterious Discoveries of the Lewis and Clark Expedition The Suppressed History of America: The Murder of Meriwether Lewis and the Mysterious Discoveries of the Lewis and Clark Expedition

The Suppressed History of America: The Murder of Meriwether Lewis and the Mysterious Discoveries of the Lewis and Clark Expedition The Suppressed History of America

An investigation into the discoveries of Lewis and Clark and other early explorers of America and the terrible acts committed to suppress them

  • • Provides archaeological proof of giants, the fountain of youth, and descriptions from Lewis’s journals of a tribe of “nearly white, blue-eyed” Indians
  • • Uncovers evidence of explorers from Europe and Asia prior to Columbus and of ancient civilizations in North America and the Caribbean
  • • Investigates the Smithsonian conspiracy to cover up Lewis and Clark’s discoveries and what lead to Lewis’s murder

Meriwether Lewis discovered far more than the history books tell--ancient civilizations, strange monuments, “nearly white, blue-eyed” Indians, and evidence that the American continent was visited long before the first European settlers arrived. And he was murdered to keep it all secret.

Examining the shadows and cracks between America’s official version of history, Xaviant Haze and Paul Schrag propose that the America of old taught in schools is not the America that was discovered by Lewis and Clark and other early explorers. Investigating the discoveries of Spanish conquistadors and Olmec stories of contact with European-like natives, the authors uncover evidence of explorers from Europe and Asia prior to Columbus, sophisticated ancient civilizations in North America and the Caribbean, the fountain of youth, and a long-extinct race of giants. Verifying stories from Lewis’s journals with modern archaeological finds, geological studies, 18th- and 19th-century newspapers, and accounts of the world in the days of Columbus, the authors reveal how Lewis and Clark’s finds infuriated powerful interests in Washington--including the Smithsonian Institution--culminating in the murder of Meriwether Lewis.

About the Author

PAUL SCHRAG is an award-winning journalist, novelist, marketing and business consultant, photographer, and musician. XAVIANT HAZE is a freelance researcher of ancient manuscripts and alternative history. His career as a music producer and DJ allows him to travel the world, exploring and documenting his findings on lost cities and the myths of the pre-diluvian world. Both authors live in Tacoma, Washington.

Paperback: 176 pages
Publisher: Bear & Company; F First Edition edition (May 20, 2011)



Texas Artifacts May Rewrite History

Roy Wenzl
April 6, 2011



Discovery Of Artifacts In Texas May Rewrite Human History 

Michael Waters
Michael Waters, at the Debra L. Friedkin dig site north of Austin, Texas, that he and other archaeologists say will rewrite American history about the first people to colonize North and South America. He and his team found human artifacts in soils that can be accurately dated to about 15,500 years ago.(Courtesy of Michael Waters/Wichita Eagle/MCT)
Michael Waters

Michael Waters, at the Debra L. Friedkin dig site north of Austin, Texas, that he and other archaeologists say will rewrite American history about the first people to colonize North and South America. He and his team found human artifacts in soils that can be accurately dated to about 15,500 years ago.(Courtesy of Michael Waters/Wichita Eagle/MCT)

COLLEGE STATION, Texas —Scientists along Buttermilk Creek north of Austin, Texas, have found flint knife blades, chisels and other human artifacts lying in a soil layer nearly 16,000 years old — a discovery they say will rewrite a major chapter of ancient human history.

For one thing, it is now the oldest and arguably most credible site of human occupation in North or South America; but there's more.

The discovery, by Texas A&M archaeologist Michael Waters and others, pushes back by 2,500 years the time when traditional science thought humans entered the New World from Siberia and founded the native peoples of North and South America.

"This discovery ought to be like a baseball bat to the side of the head," to past theories, Waters said.

Other ancient sites in the Americas usually produce only handfuls of artifacts, in soils with ages that scientists argue about. This site contained tools in layer after layer of soils stacked like layer cake, the youngest from modern times, the oldest layer containing 15,000 artifacts dated to 15,500 years ago.

The discovery strengthens the case for two theories that traditional archaeologists laughed at not long ago — that the first Americans came earlier than 13,000 years ago, and that they didn't walk over a land bridge into North America from Siberia, but came by skin boats at least 16,000 years ago (or long before) skirting along coastlines of the Aleutian Islands and then Alaska, Canada and America.

Waters believes they came by boat, hunting seals beside Ice Age glaciers a few miles at a time, surviving Ice Age weather, bringing families and pet dogs. He thinks the first colonies in America sprouted tens of thousands of years ago along the Columbia River basin between Washington and Oregon, a region he said archaeologists should re-explore with renewed vigor.

This story is important to all of us, he said; most Americans think Columbus should be taught in schools; but the first discovery of America was more heroic than his voyage, and far older. It's a story that Waters and other scientists have spent decades trying to get right, including with dig sites in Kansas.

The first Americans, or Paleo Indians, were the first to explore the Rockies and Andes, the Mississippi, the Amazon. They were first to see giant elephants and bison roaming Ice Age Kansas. They dodged everything from giant Dire wolves, giant short-faced bears, saber-toothed cats, and American lions.

They took heroic risks — hunted elephants with spears, at arms' length; taste-tested possibly lethal plants to find which were good as food or medicine; hunted with grannies and children not only coming along but driving herds into hunter ambushes.

"One thought that deeply touches my sense of wonder is that they didn't really have to migrate once they got here," Waters said. "Everywhere they would go, they'd find a land empty of people, with huge amounts of resources. And yet they migrated all the way to the tip of South America, and the only explanation is the relentless human spirit of adventure. And they were bringing not only their wives and elderly but their pregnant wives and their babies."

That story will get more exciting, including close to home; Waters said scientists have made potentially huge discoveries in Kansas.

The tools found in Texas are flint blades small and thin, designed by people who carried everything they owned. It is likely that flint tools made up only 5 percent or so of the belongings of these people.


Andice Clovis point
Andice Clovis point

Andice Clovis point

Many of the tools are cutting blades used to whittle and shape bone and wood; there were no distinct spear points.

Waters thinks the Buttermilk people used the stone tools to make spear points from bone. Some tools had notches with convex edges — carving tools; some chisels had edges dulled from scraping hard surfaces.

Andice cast hand
Andice cast hand

Andice cast hand
Andice - gault
Andice - gault

Andice - gault
Andice barber drill
Andice barber drill

Andice barber drill
Andice - gower
Andice - gower

Andice - gower

Golf-ball sized nodule of hematite
Andice - gower

Andice - gower

One artifact gave Waters a thrill when found: a golf-ball-size nodule of hematite, worn flat on several sides the way schoolroom chalk wears flat. Hematite when mixed with animal and plant oils produces red ochre — paint to adorn spear shafts, clothing — or skin.

"These people from 15,500 years ago were decorating themselves."

Rolfe Mandel, a geoarchaeologist with the Kansas Geological Survey who has discovered important sites in Kansas, said the Texas discovery is "a very big deal," in part because it strengthens the possibility that humans entered the New World as early as 24,000 years ago, near the peak rather than at the end of the last Ice Age.

Waters said he would not go that far; ("I can confirm only that they were here at least by 15,500 years ago.")

But Mandel and some geneticists say the evidence is growing.

Twenty-four thousand years ago would have been scoffed at by scientists only a few years ago. They believed people could not have come until 13,000 years ago.

The Texas discovery upends that, Mandel said. People didn't just enter Alaska and sprint with babies to Texas; (or to Monte Verde, a site in southern Chile dated at 14,500 years). They migrated, perhaps for centuries.

Mandel analyzed Waters' discovery paper for Science magazine, which published it Thursday. He said Waters found overwhelming evidence in a field of study where that almost never happens. Ancient Americans were so few, and created so few belongings that survived decay that most camp or hunting sites contain only a few flint flakes. But Waters found thousands of artifacts in excavation blocks only about 50 meters square.

It's a world-class discovery; in recent days Waters has given interviews to science writers from the New York Times, Washington Post and German Public Radio (the Germans LOVE Paleo Indians," he said.

Mandel said Waters has done much to solve a human origin mystery that other explorers got awesomely wrong for 519 years, starting when Columbus first stepped onto a Bahamas beach, and called the natives "Indians."

Until recently, traditional science held that the first Americans were the "Clovis culture" hunter-gatherers who lived in North Americas 13,000 years ago. Scientists named the culture after Clovis, N.M., where the first such spear points were found in the 1920s. Mandel has identified Clovis campsites in Kansas; Waters found hundreds of Clovis artifacts in younger soil above the older ones.

Clovis people left behind a gorgeous signature of their existence: long, grooved spear points that no other people ever made. They are so artistic that many scientists think their makers created them with a spiritual zeal.

Pre-Clovis possible migration route
Pre-Clovis possible migration route
Pre-Clovis possible migration route

Scientists thought Clovis hunters were the first Americans because geologists knew that mile-high Ice Age glaciers would have prevented anyone from migrating from Siberia through Alaska. It melted to let people through about 13,000 years ago, a time that dovetailed with the age of Clovis tools.

Waters said Clovis-first is a dead idea now, not only because of his discovery but of others. Archaeologists in the 1970s discovered 14,500-year-old wooden housing foundations, tent pegs, and campfire ash in southern Chile at Monte Verde. It was older than Clovis culture by 1,500 years, and located 10,000 miles south of the Siberian-Alaskan passageway, meaning humans not only had to enter Alaska but migrate halfway around the world to get there.

Other discoveries turned up in North America; artifacts appeared older than Clovis. And DNA scientists, who believe they can determine a racial population's genetic age and relationships between ethnic groups with accuracy these days, are saying that Native America's ancestors came from Siberia, probably before 16,000 years ago.

Waters, the director of the Center for the Study of the First Americans at Texas A&M, found Clovis artifacts along Buttermilk Creek a decade ago.

In 2006 his team dug beneath the Clovis layer.

"There was this ah-ha moment. We found dozens and dozens of artifacts below the Clovis horizon; and when we dated the soils repeatedly, it kept showing that it was much, much older than Clovis. I!"

Using luminescence dating, (measuring the amount of light energy trapped in sediment grains) and repeating the experiment with different sections of soils, he found an age 15,500 years. His team found 56 tools — knife blades, choppers, scrapers and notched whittling tools. They are not beautiful like Clovis; but Buttermilk was a camp, where hunters wanted only to whack a rough flint core to flake off razor-sharp butcher's blades.

Waters' team also found thousands of flakes of flint left over from manufacture.

The reason those chips will rewrite history is that Waters' critics all know that artifacts from one layer of soil can fall to an older layer through cracks in sun-baked soil, or from holes dug by gophers. Finding thousands of chips in one layer is hard to dispute. "When I saw that, I said, "holy smokes," Waters said.

Some scientists will still dispute the site's age and his conclusions.

In the office next door to Waters in the anthropology building at Texas A&M on Monday, a Russian-speaking anthropologist, Kelly Graf, who has dug and explored in both Siberia and Alaska, said Waters' conclusions about a much older colonization from Siberia were not supported by archaeological evidence; there are no sites of human occupation in Alaska older than 14,000; no physical evidence of people using boats near Alaska more than 20,000 years ago. That does not mean it didn't happen; it means the case is circumstantial.

Many strong cases are circumstantial, Waters said.

At 15,500 years ago, agriculture and the revolution it caused in human behavior would not come along in the Middle East for five thousand years. There was no bow and arrow, which eventually made hunting easier and safer; no tamed animals except the dog; no cities, where people extend life and comfort with granaries and cooperation. Nobody settled down for long. People lived to walk.

The Buttermilk Creek people probably ate well, though. Though Ice Age glaciers covered much of Europe, (and North America all the way to what is now Des Moines), their landscape was filled with animals that would feed many, and intrigue us: mammoths and mastodons, peccaries — and camels and horses, which originated in North America but died out before the Spanish came.

There were giant beaver four feet tall, giant armadillos. giant sloths, and bison 20 percent bigger than bison today, wearing long-horns.

The people probably dug mussel shells out of creeks, probably settled often for small meals. "Hunting big game is dangerous, not as economical as you might think," said University of Kansas paleontologist Larry Martin. "You kill a big animal, you start worrying about big predators coming at it." They were our equals in intelligence; their languages as complex as ours in grammar and syntax. "They no doubt told campfire stories, about mammoths, creation spirits and stars in the sky," Waters said. They likely had a shaman, someone who tried to help the hunters or the sick by connecting to the spirit world.

Winters were warmer, summers cooler. Texas was green parkland interspersed with conifers. Buttermilk Creek's spring-fed water runs all year; its banks hold huge layers of exceptional Edwards chert. Waters jokingly said the first words spoken when humans reached the creek were: "Look at all this tool-stone! Let's get the whole gang here!" Along the creek, they rested and sharpened their tools.

Waters said they probably lived as rich and as happy as anybody who came after.

Oldest Americans

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Some material presented will contain links, quotes, ideologies, etc., the contents of which should be understood to first, in their whole, reflect the views or opinions of their editors, and second, are used in my personal research as "fair use" sources only, and not espousement one way or the other. Researching for 'truth' leads one all over the place...a piece here, a piece there. As a researcher, I hunt, gather and disassemble resources, trying to put all the pieces into a coherent and logical whole. I encourage you to do the same. And please remember, these pages are only my effort to collect all the pieces I can find and see if they properly fit into the 'reality aggregate'.

Personal Position

Personal Position:
I've come to realize that 'truth' boils down to what we 'believe' the facts we've gathered point to. We only 'know' what we've 'experienced' firsthand. Everything else - what we read, what we watch, what we hear - is what someone else's gathered facts point to and 'they' 'believe' is 'truth', so that 'truth' seems to change in direct proportion to newly gathered facts divided by applied plausibility. Though I believe there is 'truth', until someone celestial who 'knows' all the facts parts the heavens and throws us a scroll titled "Here Are ALL The Facts And Lies In The Order They Happened," I can't know for sure exactly what "the whole truth' on any given subject is, and what applies to me applies to everyone.
~Gail Bird Allen

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