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Ancient America, in Notes on American Archaeology Ancient America, in Notes on American Archaeology (Illustrated)

Ancient America, in Notes on American Archaeology (Illustrated) Ancient America, in Notes on American Archaeology (Illustrated)

“If, as seems most likely, there was in South America an ancient development of civilized human life, out of which arose the civilizations found in Peru and Central America, its antiquity was much greater than can be comprehended by the current chronologies.” -John D. Baldwin, a confidant to many notable thinkers of his time, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Charles Darwin, James Russell Lowell, and particularly his friend Charles Sumner.

John D. Baldwin asserts that the origins of human civilization arose among an Arabian or Northeast African people, the Cushites, in pre-historic times.

CONTENTS.

  • I. ANCIENT AMERICA.—THE MOUND-BUILDERS Works of the Mound-Builders. Extent of their Settlements. Their Civilization. Their Ancient Mining Works.
  • II. ANTIQUITY OF THE MOUND-BUILDERS How long were they here?
  • III. WHO WERE THE MOUND-BUILDERS? Not Ancestors of the Wild Indians. Brereton’s Story. American Ethnology. Who the Mound-Builders were.
  • IV. MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA Their Northern Remains. The “Seven Cities of Cevola.” Central Mexico. The great Ruins at the South.
  • V. MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA Palenque. Copan and Quiragua. Mitla. An Astronomical Monument. Ruins farther South. The Ruins in Yucatan. Mayapan. Uxmal. Kabah. Chichen-Itza. Other Ruins.
  • VI. ANTIQUITY OF THE RUINS Distinct Eras traced. Nothing perishable left. “The Oldest of Civilizations.” American Cities seen by Tyrians.
  • VII. WHENCE CAME THIS CIVILIZATION? The “Lost Tribes of Israel.” The “Malay” Theory. The Phœnician Theory. The “Atlantic” Theory. It was an original Civilization.
  • VIII. AMERICAN ANCIENT HISTORY The Old Books not all lost. The Ancient History sketched. The Toltecs our Mound-Builders. Some confirmation of the History
  • IX. THE AZTEC CIVILIZATION The Discovery and Invasion. The City of Mexico. The Conquest. Who were the Aztecs? They came from the South.
  • X. ANCIENT PERU The Spanish Hunt for Peru. The Ruins near Lake Titicaca. Other Ruins in Peru. The great Peruvian Roads. The Peruvian Civilization.
  • XI. PERUVIAN ANCIENT HISTORY Garcilasso’s History. Fernando Montesinos. His Scheme of Peruvian History. Probabilities. Conclusion.
  • APPENDIX.
    • A. The Northmen in America.
    • B. The Welsh in America.
    • C. Antiquities of the Pacific Islands.
    • D. Deciphering the Inscriptions

About the Author

Dr. Baldwin is a native of Alabama and received his B.A. in History from Talladega College. He then received an M.A. degree in Black Church Studies followed by a M.Div. degree in Theology at Colgate-Rochester Divinity School in Rochester, New York. In 1980 Dr. Baldwin earned a Ph.D. degree in American Christianity from Northwestern University. He has taught at Wooster College in Ohio, Colgate University in New York, Colgate-Rochester Divinity School and currently is Professor in Religious Studies at Vanderbilt University. Dr. Baldwin is the author of over sixty articles and several books, and he and his wife live in Nashville, TN. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Paperback: 134 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (March 23, 2015)

1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus

1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus

In this groundbreaking work of science, history, and archaeology, Charles C. Mann radically alters our understanding of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus in 1492.

Contrary to what so many Americans learn in school, the pre-Columbian Indians were not sparsely settled in a pristine wilderness; rather, there were huge numbers of Indians who actively molded and influenced the land around them. The astonishing Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan had running water and immaculately clean streets, and was larger than any contemporary European city. Mexican cultures created corn in a specialized breeding process that it has been called man’s first feat of genetic engineering. Indeed, Indians were not living lightly on the land but were landscaping and manipulating their world in ways that we are only now beginning to understand. Challenging and surprising, this a transformative new look at a rich and fascinating world we only thought we knew.

About the Author

Charles C. Mann, a correspondent for The Atlantic, Science, and Wired, has written for Fortune, The New York Times, Smithsonian, Technology Review, Vanity Fair, and The Washington Post, as well as for the TV network HBO and the series Law & Order. A three-time National Magazine Award finalist, he is the recipient of writing awards from the American Bar Association, the American Institute of Physics, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the Lannan Foundation. His 1491 won the National Academies Communication Award for the best book of the year. He lives in Amherst, Massachusetts.

Paperback: 541 pages
Publisher: Vintage Books; 1st edition (October 10, 2006)

The Ancient Giants Who Ruled America: The Missing Skeletons and the Great Smithsonian Cover-Up The Ancient Giants Who Ruled America: The Missing Skeletons and the Great Smithsonian Cover-Up

The Ancient Giants Who Ruled America: The Missing Skeletons and the Great Smithsonian Cover-Up The Ancient Giants Who Ruled America

A study of the substantial evidence for a former race of giants in North America and its 150-year suppression by the Smithsonian Institution

  • • Shows how thousands of giant skeletons have been found, particularly in the Mississippi Valley, as well as the ruins of the giants’ cities
  • • Explores 400 years of giant finds, including newspaper articles, first person accounts, state historical records, and illustrated field reports
  • • Reveals the Stonehenge-era megalithic burial complex on Catalina Island with over 4,000 giant skeletons, including kings more than 9 feet tall
  • • Includes more than 100 rare photographs and illustrations of the lost evidence

Drawing on 400 years of newspaper articles and photos, first person accounts, state historical records, and illustrated field reports, Richard J. Dewhurst reveals not only that North America was once ruled by an advanced race of giants but also that the Smithsonian has been actively suppressing the physical evidence for nearly 150 years. He shows how thousands of giant skeletons have been unearthed at Mound Builder sites across the continent, only to disappear from the historical record. He examines other concealed giant discoveries, such as the giant mummies found in Spirit Cave, Nevada, wrapped in fine textiles and dating to 8000 BCE; the hundreds of red-haired bog mummies found at sinkhole “cenotes” on the west coast of Florida and dating to 7500 BCE; and the ruins of the giants’ cities with populations in excess of 100,000 in Arizona, Oklahoma, Alabama, and Louisiana.

Dewhurst shows how this suppression began shortly after the Civil War and transformed into an outright cover-up in 1879 when Major John Wesley Powell was appointed Smithsonian director, launching a strict pro-evolution, pro-Manifest Destiny agenda. He also reveals the 1920s’ discovery on Catalina Island of a megalithic burial complex with 6,000 years of continuous burials and over 4,000 skeletons, including a succession of kings and queens, some more than 9 feet tall--the evidence for which is hidden in the restricted-access evidence rooms at the Smithsonian.

About the Author

Richard J. Dewhurst is the Emmy Award-winning writer of the HBO feature documentary Dear America: Letters Home from Vietnam. A graduate of NYU with degrees in journalism, film, and television, he has written and edited for the History Channel, the Arts & Entertainment Channel, PBS, Fox Television and Fox Films, ABC News, TNT, Paramount Pictures, and the Miami Herald. He lives in Vermont.

Paperback: 368 pages
Publisher: Bear & Company; 1 edition (December 27, 2013)

The Urantia Book The Urantia Book
The Urantia Book The Urantia Book

Love

Love is truly contagious and eternally creative. (p. 2018) “Devote your life to proving that love is the greatest thing in the world.” (p. 2047) “Love is the ancestor of all spiritual goodness, the essence of the true and the beautiful.” (p. 2047) The Father’s love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man’s personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows. (p. 1289) The secret of a better civilization is bound up in the Master’s teachings of the brotherhood of man, the good will of love and mutual trust. (p. 2065)

Prayer

Prayer is not a technique of escape from conflict but rather a stimulus to growth in the very face of conflict. (p. 1002) The sincerity of any prayer is the assurance of its being heard. … (p. 1639) God answers man’s prayer by giving him an increased revelation of truth, an enhanced appreciation of beauty, and an augmented concept of goodness. (p. 1002) …Never forget that the sincere prayer of faith is a mighty force for the promotion of personal happiness, individual self-control, social harmony, moral progress, and spiritual attainment. (p. 999)

Suffering

There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. (p. 364) Mortals only learn wisdom by experiencing tribulation. (p. 556)

Angels

The angels of all orders are distinct personalities and are highly individualized. (p. 285) Angels....are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them. (p. 419)

Our Divine Destiny

If you are a willing learner, if you want to attain spirit levels and reach divine heights, if you sincerely desire to reach the eternal goal, then the divine Spirit will gently and lovingly lead you along the pathway of sonship and spiritual progress. (p. 381) …They who know that God is enthroned in the human heart are destined to become like him—immortal. (p. 1449) God is not only the determiner of destiny; he is man’s eternal destination. (p. 67)

Family

Almost everything of lasting value in civilization has its roots in the family. (p. 765) The family is man’s greatest purely human achievement. ... (p. 939)

Faith

…Faith will expand the mind, ennoble the soul, reinforce the personality, augment the happiness, deepen the spirit perception, and enhance the power to love and be loved. (p. 1766) “Now, mistake not, my Father will ever respond to the faintest flicker of faith.” (p. 1733)

History/Science

The story of man’s ascent from seaweed to the lordship of earthly creation is indeed a romance of biologic struggle and mind survival. (p. 731) 2,500,000,000 years ago… Urantia was a well developed sphere about one tenth its present mass. … (p. 658) 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of Urantia [Earth] history. (p. 660) 450,000,000 years ago the transition from vegetable to animal life occurred. (p. 669) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years. (p. 707) About five hundred thousand years ago…there were almost one-half billion primitive human beings on earth. … (p. 741) Adam and Eve arrived on Urantia, from the year A.D. 1934, 37,848 years ago. (p. 828)

From the Inside Flap

What’s Inside?

Parts I and II

God, the inhabited universes, life after death, angels and other beings, the war in heaven.

Part III

The history of the world, science and evolution, Adam and Eve, development of civilization, marriage and family, personal spiritual growth.

Part IV

The life and teachings of Jesus including the missing years. AND MUCH MORE…

Excerpts

God, …God is the source and destiny of all that is good and beautiful and true. (p. 1431) If you truly want to find God, that desire is in itself evidence that you have already found him. (p. 1440) When man goes in partnership with God, great things may, and do, happen. (p. 1467)

The Origin of Human Life, The universe is not an accident... (p. 53) The universe of universes is the work of God and the dwelling place of his diverse creatures. (p. 21) The evolutionary planets are the spheres of human origin…Urantia [Earth] is your starting point. … (p. 1225) In God, man lives, moves, and has his being. (p. 22)

The Purpose of Life, There is in the mind of God a plan which embraces every creature of all his vast domains, and this plan is an eternal purpose of boundless opportunity, unlimited progress, and endless life. (p. 365) This new gospel of the kingdom… presents a new and exalted goal of destiny, a supreme life purpose. (p. 1778)

Jesus, The religion of Jesus is the most dynamic influence ever to activate the human race. (p. 1091) What an awakening the world would experience if it could only see Jesus as he really lived on earth and know, firsthand, his life-giving teachings! (p. 2083)

Science, Science, guided by wisdom, may become man’s great social liberator. (p. 909) Mortal man is not an evolutionary accident. There is a precise system, a universal law, which determines the unfolding of the planetary life plan on the spheres of space. (p. 560)

Life after Death, God’s love is universal… He is “not willing that any should perish.” (p. 39) Your short sojourn on Urantia [Earth]…is only a single link, the very first in the long chain that is to stretch across universes and through the eternal ages. (p. 435) …Death is only the beginning of an endless career of adventure, an everlasting life of anticipation, an eternal voyage of discovery. (p. 159)

About the Author

The text of The Urantia Book was provided by one or more anonymous contributors working with a small staff which provided editorial and administrative support during the book's creation. The book bears no particular credentials (from a human viewpoint), relying instead on the power and beauty of the writing itself to persuade the reader of its authenticity.

Leather Bound: 2097 pages
Publisher: Urantia Foundation; Box Lea edition (August 25, 2015)

North American Archaeology North American Archaeology

North American Archaeology North American Archaeology

This volume offers a rich and informative introduction to North American archaeology for all those interested in the history and culture of North American natives.

  • Organized around central topics and debates within the discipline.
  • Illustrated with case studies based on the lives of real people, to emphasize human agency, cultural practice, the body, issues of inequality, and the politics of archaeological practice.
  • Highlights current understandings of cultural and historical processes in North America and situates these understandings within a global perspective.

Paperback: 416 pages
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell; 1 edition (December 27, 2004)

Archaeology of Native North America Archaeology of Native North America

Archaeology of Native North America Archaeology of Native North America

This comprehensive text is intended for the junior-senior level course in North American Archaeology. Written by accomplished scholar Dean Snow, this new text approaches native North America from the perspective of evolutionary ecology. Succinct, streamlined chapters present an extensive groundwork for supplementary material, or serve as a core text.The narrative covers all of Mesoamerica, and explicates the links between the part of North America covered by the United States and Canada and the portions covered by Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and the Greater Antilles. Additionally, book is extensively illustrated with the author's own research and findings.

About the Author

Dean R. Snow is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Penn State University. He is an archaeologist who specializes in ethnohistoric and demographic problems. In recent years his work has led him into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approaches to these issues. He has conducted research in Mexico and in the northeastern region of North America, where his work on the Iroquois is particularly well known. His current research includes cyberinfrastructure and the development of large GIS databases designed to explore large-scale population movements over time and space. He is also currently researching the sexual dimorphism of human handprints and hand stencils in the Upper Paleolithic caves of France and Spain.

Paperback: 408 pages
Publisher: Routledge; 1 edition (October 1, 2009)

The Suppressed History of America: The Murder of Meriwether Lewis and the Mysterious Discoveries of the Lewis and Clark Expedition The Suppressed History of America: The Murder of Meriwether Lewis and the Mysterious Discoveries of the Lewis and Clark Expedition

The Suppressed History of America: The Murder of Meriwether Lewis and the Mysterious Discoveries of the Lewis and Clark Expedition The Suppressed History of America

An investigation into the discoveries of Lewis and Clark and other early explorers of America and the terrible acts committed to suppress them

  • • Provides archaeological proof of giants, the fountain of youth, and descriptions from Lewis’s journals of a tribe of “nearly white, blue-eyed” Indians
  • • Uncovers evidence of explorers from Europe and Asia prior to Columbus and of ancient civilizations in North America and the Caribbean
  • • Investigates the Smithsonian conspiracy to cover up Lewis and Clark’s discoveries and what lead to Lewis’s murder

Meriwether Lewis discovered far more than the history books tell--ancient civilizations, strange monuments, “nearly white, blue-eyed” Indians, and evidence that the American continent was visited long before the first European settlers arrived. And he was murdered to keep it all secret.

Examining the shadows and cracks between America’s official version of history, Xaviant Haze and Paul Schrag propose that the America of old taught in schools is not the America that was discovered by Lewis and Clark and other early explorers. Investigating the discoveries of Spanish conquistadors and Olmec stories of contact with European-like natives, the authors uncover evidence of explorers from Europe and Asia prior to Columbus, sophisticated ancient civilizations in North America and the Caribbean, the fountain of youth, and a long-extinct race of giants. Verifying stories from Lewis’s journals with modern archaeological finds, geological studies, 18th- and 19th-century newspapers, and accounts of the world in the days of Columbus, the authors reveal how Lewis and Clark’s finds infuriated powerful interests in Washington--including the Smithsonian Institution--culminating in the murder of Meriwether Lewis.

About the Author

PAUL SCHRAG is an award-winning journalist, novelist, marketing and business consultant, photographer, and musician. XAVIANT HAZE is a freelance researcher of ancient manuscripts and alternative history. His career as a music producer and DJ allows him to travel the world, exploring and documenting his findings on lost cities and the myths of the pre-diluvian world. Both authors live in Tacoma, Washington.

Paperback: 176 pages
Publisher: Bear & Company; F First Edition edition (May 20, 2011)


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Ancient Portable Tool Kit
Shows Humans Settled North America
Much Earlier Than Scientists Thought

by
Rebecca Boyle
March 24, 2011

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Pre-Clovis Toolkit courtesy Michael R. Waters
Pre-Clovis Toolkit: A sample of pre-Clovis tools found in central Texas, dating to 15,500 years ago. Scientists say the trove of tools and toolmaking supplies could finally prove the Clovis people were not the first Americans. Courtesy Michael R. Waters
Pre-Clovis Toolkit: A sample of pre-Clovis tools found in central Texas, dating to 15,500 years ago. Scientists say the trove of tools and toolmaking supplies could finally prove the Clovis people were not the first Americans. Courtesy Michael R. Waters

A prehistoric mobile toolkit buried in milky creek sediments in central Texas shows humans first settled North America 2,500 years earlier than previously thought. The finding could shatter the prevailing theory of paleo-American settlement, which holds that people left northeast Asia via a land bridge through the Bering Strait and settled the continent 13,000 years ago.

Archaeologists excavating the Debra L. Friedkin site at Buttermilk Creek, about 40 miles northwest of Austin, found ancient human artifacts spanning 15,500 years, according to a paper published today in the journal Science. The artifacts were buried in neatly stacked cake-like layers of sediment, with little or no mixing between the layers, scientists said.

“People were over almost the entire continent, from Oregon to Wisconsin to Pennsylvania to Florida to Texas, by 15,000 years ago,” said Michael Waters, director of Texas A&M's Center for the Study of First Americans and lead author of the study. “It’s time to abandon once and for all the ‘Clovis-First’ model, and develop a new model for the peopling of the Americas.”

Waters said the team found 16,000 artifacts, mostly pieces of rock left over from the tool-making process. The site yielded 56 tools, including 12 knives; several rocks on their way to becoming spear points; 20 blades and small “blade-lets,” choppers and more.

“This is a mobile tool kit, something which is easily transported. It’s lightweight,” Waters said. “These are the types of tools you would have if you were a mobile hunter and gatherer.”

The Clovis culture has long been the benchmark for the earliest human habitation of the Americas. Its name comes from 11,200-year-old stone spear points first discovered in the 1930s near Clovis, N.M. Several other archaeological sites from Pennsylvania to Chile harbor evidence of much older settlements, but the “Clovis first” model prevails among many archaeologists.

The Buttermilk Creek artifacts were found directly below a layer of Clovis relics, and sediment tests and a unique dating method show that in this case, Clovis was not there first. The artifacts are similar to Clovis relics, suggesting they are precursors to Clovis technology and were later adopted and modified by Clovis cultures, Waters said.

“These people ... grew in population size and eventually experimented with the lithic material that was available to them, and then would eventually develop into the technology that we recognize as Clovis,” he said.

Dennis Jenkins, senior archaeologist for the Museum of Natural and Cultural History at the University of Oregon, and who was not involved in the research, said he was skeptical at first. Jenkins has supervised more than 100 excavations, including extensive work at Oregon’s Paisley Caves, where he found fossilized pre-Clovis-era human excrement in 2002. Almost every time, sediment layers are mixed up by burrowing animals, plant roots or other phenomena, making it difficult to prove which tools come from which layers. But the Buttermilk Creek site is different, he said.

“(Waters) is arguing the site is nicely stacked together like a cake, and basically each layer of the cake is separate from the layers above it and below it,” he said.

As Buttermilk Creek flooded over the millennia, it saturated the ground and deposited sediments over the surrounding meadows. The clay settled and compacted over thousands of years, Jenkins said. Waters was able to reconstruct the layers and connect various artifacts to each layer.

“He meticulously addressed each question about the movement of artifacts. It is just an incredible piece of scientific work,” Jenkins said. “We can be skeptical, but the evidence supports what he says.”

Buttermilk Creek Sediment courtesy Michael R. Waters
Buttermilk Creek Sediments: Courtesy Michael R. Waters
Buttermilk Creek Sediments: Courtesy Michael R. Waters

Though rich in tools and tool fragments, the site was short on organic material, making it impossible to measure the tools’ age using radiocarbon dating. Instead, researchers turned to a relatively new technique called optically stimulated luminescence, which measures doses of ionizing radiation to determine when a mineral like quartz or feldspar was last exposed to sunlight. Scientists have to account for environmental radiation dosage, by measuring sediment exposure to radioactive elements like uranium, thorium and potassium-40. Then they can measure how the quartz changes in response to a light source, in this case blue light.

“A time-dependent signal accumulates after the grain is shielded from light exposure,” said Steven Forman, earth and environmental sciences professor at the University of Illinois-Chicago.

Jenkins said the OSL technique has a much greater margin of error than radiocarbon dating — in some cases, the error range is as wide as 800 years, compared to about 25 years for radiocarbon dating.

“Archaeologists are going to look at this and go, whoa, gee whiz, why are they so broad?” he said.

After consulting with radiocarbon dating experts, he said he was convinced of the technique’s veracity, however. He believes the finding will help settle the debate about Clovis First: “This is exactly the ind of meticulous work that the Clovis First people have been asking for,” he said.

Waters said archaeologists can now start looking for relationships between pre-Clovis artifacts and the Old World, and how the first humans came to the Americas.

“If you are at 15,000 years ago and you’re in central Texas, that tells us that somebody was here even earlier, because you have to get to central Texas and that would take a while. At 15,500 years ago, the ice-free corridor (in Canada) was closed. The two ice sheets were merged. So this lends indirect credence to the idea that people came along the coast and entered the Americas,” he said. “It opens up and creates all sorts of new possibilities and new thinking about the first people to enter the continent.”

Source: Popular Science


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Disclaimer

Disclaimer:
Some material presented will contain links, quotes, ideologies, etc., the contents of which should be understood to first, in their whole, reflect the views or opinions of their editors, and second, are used in my personal research as "fair use" sources only, and not espousement one way or the other. Researching for 'truth' leads one all over the place...a piece here, a piece there. As a researcher, I hunt, gather and disassemble resources, trying to put all the pieces into a coherent and logical whole. I encourage you to do the same. And please remember, these pages are only my effort to collect all the pieces I can find and see if they properly fit into the 'reality aggregate'.

Personal Position

Personal Position:
I've come to realize that 'truth' boils down to what we 'believe' the facts we've gathered point to. We only 'know' what we've 'experienced' firsthand. Everything else - what we read, what we watch, what we hear - is what someone else's gathered facts point to and 'they' 'believe' is 'truth', so that 'truth' seems to change in direct proportion to newly gathered facts divided by applied plausibility. Though I believe there is 'truth', until someone celestial who 'knows' all the facts parts the heavens and throws us a scroll titled "Here Are ALL The Facts And Lies In The Order They Happened," I can't know for sure exactly what "the whole truth' on any given subject is, and what applies to me applies to everyone.
~Gail Bird Allen

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