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The History of the Kings of Britain The History of the Kings of Britain

The History of the Kings of Britain The History of the Kings of Britain (Penguin Classics)

Completed in 1136, this classic chronicle traces the story of the realm from its supposed foundation by Brutus to the coming of the Saxons some two thousand years later. Vividly portraying legendary and semi-legendary figures such as Lear, Cymbeline, Merlin the magician, and the most famous of all British heroes, King Arthur, it is as much myth as it is history, and its veracity was questioned by other medieval writers. But Geoffrey of Monmouth’s powerful evocation of illustrious men and deeds captured the imagination of subsequent generations, and his influence can be traced through the works of Malory, Shakespeare, Dryden, and Tennyson.

Lewis Thorpe’s translation from the Latin brings us an accurate and enthralling version of Geoffrey’s remarkable narrative. His introduction discusses in depth the aims of the author and his possible sources, and describes the impact of this work on British literature.

About the Author

Geoffrey of Monmouth was a Welsh cleric and British historiographer who lived during the twelfth century. He is best known for his chronicle The History of the Kings of Britain, which, though now considered historically unreliable, was widely popular in its day and is cited as an important work of national myth.

Lewis Thorpe was professor of French at Nottingham University from 1958 to 1977 and president of the British Branch of the International Arthurian Society. He published many books and articles on Arthur, both on the French and English traditions. He died in 1977.

Paperback: 384 pages
Publisher: Penguin Books; 1st edition (January 27, 1977)

The History of England, Volume I The History of England, Volume I

The History of England, Volume I The History of England, Volume I

No details.

Paperback: 456 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (May 14, 2017)

The Story of Britain: From the Romans to the Present: A Narrative History The Story of Britain: From the Romans to the Present: A Narrative History

The Story of Britain: From the Romans to the Present: A Narrative History The Story of Britain: From the Romans to the Present: A Narrative History

“A beautifully written story, a box of delights, a treasure trove: final proof of truth’s superiority over fiction.”―Andrew Roberts

A sparkling anecdotal account with the pace of an epic, about the men and women who created turning points in history. Rebecca Fraser's dramatic portrayal of the scientists, statesmen, explorers, soldiers, traders, and artists who forged Britain's national institutions is the perfect introduction to British history.

Just as much as kings and queens, battles and empire, Britain's great themes have been the liberty of the individual, the rule of law, and the parliamentary democracy invented to protect them. Ever since Caractacus and Boudicca surprised the Romans with the bravery of their resistance, Britain has stood out as the home of freedom. From Thomas More to William Wilberforce, from Gladstone to Churchill, Britain's history is studded with heroic figures who have resisted tyranny in all its guises, whether it be the Stuart kings' belief in divine right, the institution of slavery, or the ambitions of Napoleon and Hitler. 154 illustrations

About the Author

Rebecca Fraser has worked as a researcher, an editor, and a journalist, and has written for many publications, including Tatler, Vogue, The Times, and The Spectator. She is the author of Charlotte Brontë and lives in England.

Paperback: 848 pages
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company; Reprint edition (November 17, 2006)

The Urantia Book The Urantia Book
The Urantia Book The Urantia Book

Love

Love is truly contagious and eternally creative. (p. 2018) “Devote your life to proving that love is the greatest thing in the world.” (p. 2047) “Love is the ancestor of all spiritual goodness, the essence of the true and the beautiful.” (p. 2047) The Father’s love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man’s personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows. (p. 1289) The secret of a better civilization is bound up in the Master’s teachings of the brotherhood of man, the good will of love and mutual trust. (p. 2065)

Prayer

Prayer is not a technique of escape from conflict but rather a stimulus to growth in the very face of conflict. (p. 1002) The sincerity of any prayer is the assurance of its being heard. … (p. 1639) God answers man’s prayer by giving him an increased revelation of truth, an enhanced appreciation of beauty, and an augmented concept of goodness. (p. 1002) …Never forget that the sincere prayer of faith is a mighty force for the promotion of personal happiness, individual self-control, social harmony, moral progress, and spiritual attainment. (p. 999)

Suffering

There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. (p. 364) Mortals only learn wisdom by experiencing tribulation. (p. 556)

Angels

The angels of all orders are distinct personalities and are highly individualized. (p. 285) Angels....are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them. (p. 419)

Our Divine Destiny

If you are a willing learner, if you want to attain spirit levels and reach divine heights, if you sincerely desire to reach the eternal goal, then the divine Spirit will gently and lovingly lead you along the pathway of sonship and spiritual progress. (p. 381) …They who know that God is enthroned in the human heart are destined to become like him—immortal. (p. 1449) God is not only the determiner of destiny; he is man’s eternal destination. (p. 67)

Family

Almost everything of lasting value in civilization has its roots in the family. (p. 765) The family is man’s greatest purely human achievement. ... (p. 939)

Faith

…Faith will expand the mind, ennoble the soul, reinforce the personality, augment the happiness, deepen the spirit perception, and enhance the power to love and be loved. (p. 1766) “Now, mistake not, my Father will ever respond to the faintest flicker of faith.” (p. 1733)

History/Science

The story of man’s ascent from seaweed to the lordship of earthly creation is indeed a romance of biologic struggle and mind survival. (p. 731) 2,500,000,000 years ago… Urantia was a well developed sphere about one tenth its present mass. … (p. 658) 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of Urantia [Earth] history. (p. 660) 450,000,000 years ago the transition from vegetable to animal life occurred. (p. 669) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years. (p. 707) About five hundred thousand years ago…there were almost one-half billion primitive human beings on earth. … (p. 741) Adam and Eve arrived on Urantia, from the year A.D. 1934, 37,848 years ago. (p. 828)

From the Inside Flap

What’s Inside?

Parts I and II

God, the inhabited universes, life after death, angels and other beings, the war in heaven.

Part III

The history of the world, science and evolution, Adam and Eve, development of civilization, marriage and family, personal spiritual growth.

Part IV

The life and teachings of Jesus including the missing years. AND MUCH MORE…

Excerpts

God, …God is the source and destiny of all that is good and beautiful and true. (p. 1431) If you truly want to find God, that desire is in itself evidence that you have already found him. (p. 1440) When man goes in partnership with God, great things may, and do, happen. (p. 1467)

The Origin of Human Life, The universe is not an accident... (p. 53) The universe of universes is the work of God and the dwelling place of his diverse creatures. (p. 21) The evolutionary planets are the spheres of human origin…Urantia [Earth] is your starting point. … (p. 1225) In God, man lives, moves, and has his being. (p. 22)

The Purpose of Life, There is in the mind of God a plan which embraces every creature of all his vast domains, and this plan is an eternal purpose of boundless opportunity, unlimited progress, and endless life. (p. 365) This new gospel of the kingdom… presents a new and exalted goal of destiny, a supreme life purpose. (p. 1778)

Jesus, The religion of Jesus is the most dynamic influence ever to activate the human race. (p. 1091) What an awakening the world would experience if it could only see Jesus as he really lived on earth and know, firsthand, his life-giving teachings! (p. 2083)

Science, Science, guided by wisdom, may become man’s great social liberator. (p. 909) Mortal man is not an evolutionary accident. There is a precise system, a universal law, which determines the unfolding of the planetary life plan on the spheres of space. (p. 560)

Life after Death, God’s love is universal… He is “not willing that any should perish.” (p. 39) Your short sojourn on Urantia [Earth]…is only a single link, the very first in the long chain that is to stretch across universes and through the eternal ages. (p. 435) …Death is only the beginning of an endless career of adventure, an everlasting life of anticipation, an eternal voyage of discovery. (p. 159)

About the Author

The text of The Urantia Book was provided by one or more anonymous contributors working with a small staff which provided editorial and administrative support during the book's creation. The book bears no particular credentials (from a human viewpoint), relying instead on the power and beauty of the writing itself to persuade the reader of its authenticity.

Leather Bound: 2097 pages
Publisher: Urantia Foundation; Box Lea edition (August 25, 2015)

The History of England from the Norman Conquest to the Death of John (1066-1216) The History of England from the Norman Conquest to the Death of John (1066-1216)

The History of England from the Norman Conquest to the Death of John (1066-1216) The History of England from the Norman Conquest to the Death of John (1066-1216)

“We, conquered by William, have liberated the Conqueror’s land”. So reads the memorial to the British war dead at Bayeaux, Normandy. Commemorating those who gave their lives to free France in 1944, it also serves to remind people of an earlier conflict. For the English, the Norman conquest remains deeply embedded in the national psyche. As the last contested military invasion to have succeeded in conquering this proud island nation, the date of 1066 is the one every citizen can remember. For them, William will forever be the “Conqueror”, the last invader to beat them in an open fight. For others, notably the French, he is the “Bastard”, a reference not only to his lineage. William’s conquest of the island arguably made him the most important figure in shaping the course of English history, but modern caricatures of this vitally important medieval figure are largely based on ignorance. William is a fascinating and complex figure, in many ways the quintessential warrior king of this period. Inheriting the Duchy of Normandy while still an infant and forced to fight for his domain almost ceaselessly during his early years, William went on to conquer and rule England, five times larger and three times wealthier. In doing so, he demonstrated sophisticated political and diplomatic skill, military prowess and administrative acumen. Although he lived by the sword, he was a devout man who had only one wife, to whom he remained faithful. However, peering back nearly 1,000 years to understand William does not just require a suspension of 21st century values and prejudices, because the evidence itself is far from complete. The historical record includes chronicles and documents, most notably the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the famous Domesday Book and the Bayeux tapestry, leaving scholars to attempt the meticulous and painstaking process of piecing together the narrative of his life and determining what William and the Normans might actually have been like. At the same time, those scholars are the first to admit the limitations of these abilities, since the few people who could write in medieval England and Normandy often had important agendas and prejudices of their own, or they were recording events decades after they occurred.

Paperback: 208 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (June 15, 2014)

England: A History England: A History

England: A History England: A History

English history is the story of a people who first settled an island off the coast of continental Europe thousands of years ago and went on to rule most of the known world. This fascinating book spans centuries and shows how people like Richard the Lionheart and Elizabeth I and events such as the Norman Conquest and the defeat of the Spanish Armada shaped not just Britain but the world as we know it.

Paperback: 248 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (December 3, 2016)

The Routledge Atlas of British History The Routledge Atlas of British History

The Routledge Atlas of British History The Routledge Atlas of British History

The evolving story of the British Isles forms the central theme of this fascinating and compelling atlas, which covers England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales – and the expansion and gradual disintegration of Britain’s overseas empire. This new edition includes:

  • Politics – from the Saxon kingdoms and the collapse of England’s French Empire to the Tudors and Stuarts, the English Civil War, the Restoration, Parliamentary Reform, the Commonwealth and Europe, the European Union and the Coalition Government formed in 2010
  • War and conflict – from Viking attacks and the Norman Invasion to the Armada, two World Wars and the end of empire, the Falklands War, the Gulf War, British forces overseas, terror at home and the wars in Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Afghanistan and Iraq
  • Trade and industry – from the post-Norman economy and Tudor trade to industrial unrest and the opening of international trade routes, imports and exports, arms sales and British humanitarian aid overseas
  • Religion – from the Saxon Church to the Reformation and the multi-cultural Britain of modern times
  • Society and economics – from civilian life in Roman Britain to the Industrial and Agricultural revolutions, the General Strike and the growth of universities, unemployment, homelessness, charitable activities and government expenditure
  • Immigration – the growth of immigrant communities, the wide range of countries from which immigrants came, citizenship applications and citizenship granted.

Sir Martin Gilbert is Winston Churchill’s official biographer, and one of Britain’s leading historians, having written eighty-two books in total. He is an Honorary Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and a Distinguished Fellow of Hillsdale College, Michigan. He has also most recently served on the committee of the Iraq Inquiry set up by the British Government. For more information, please visit www.martingilbert.com.


About the Author

Sir Martin Gilbert is Winston Churchill’s official biographer, and one of Britain’s leading historians, having written eighty-two books in total. He is an Honorary Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and a Distinguished Fellow of Hillsdale College, Michigan. He has also most recently served on the committee of the Iraq Inquiry set up by the British Government. For more information, please visit www.martingilbert.com.

Paperback: 224 pages
Publisher: Routledge; 5 edition (May 27, 2011)


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The History of the Kings of Britain The History of the Kings of Britain

The History of the Kings of Britain The History of the Kings of Britain (Penguin Classics)

Completed in 1136, this classic chronicle traces the story of the realm from its supposed foundation by Brutus to the coming of the Saxons some two thousand years later. Vividly portraying legendary and semi-legendary figures such as Lear, Cymbeline, Merlin the magician, and the most famous of all British heroes, King Arthur, it is as much myth as it is history, and its veracity was questioned by other medieval writers. But Geoffrey of Monmouth’s powerful evocation of illustrious men and deeds captured the imagination of subsequent generations, and his influence can be traced through the works of Malory, Shakespeare, Dryden, and Tennyson.

Lewis Thorpe’s translation from the Latin brings us an accurate and enthralling version of Geoffrey’s remarkable narrative. His introduction discusses in depth the aims of the author and his possible sources, and describes the impact of this work on British literature.

About the Author

Geoffrey of Monmouth was a Welsh cleric and British historiographer who lived during the twelfth century. He is best known for his chronicle The History of the Kings of Britain, which, though now considered historically unreliable, was widely popular in its day and is cited as an important work of national myth.

Lewis Thorpe was professor of French at Nottingham University from 1958 to 1977 and president of the British Branch of the International Arthurian Society. He published many books and articles on Arthur, both on the French and English traditions. He died in 1977.

Paperback: 384 pages
Publisher: Penguin Books; 1st edition (January 27, 1977)

GEOFFREY OF MONMOUTH


HISTORY OF THE KINGS OF BRITIAN


OR

HISTORIA REGUM BRITANNIAE

TRANSLATED BY SEBASTIAN EVANS, LL.D.
[1904]


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    Table of Contents    

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Book 1

Geoffrey’s Prologue. ♦ To Robert of Glouchester. ♦ Praises of Britain. ♦ Of Duke Æneas. ♦ The birth of Brute.. ♦ Brute’s youthful prowess. ♦ Brute to Pandrasus. ♦ Brute’s first victory. ♦ The Greeks defeated. ♦ Pandrasus besiegeth Brute. ♦ Brute’s cunning device. ♦ A perilous stratagem. ♦ But a successful. ♦ A deadly signal. ♦ The King’s life spared. ♦ Mempricius speaketh. ♦ His counsel taken. ♦ Pandrasus yieldeth. ♦ Brute weddeth Ignoge. ♦ A deserted city. ♦ The response of Diana. ♦ A voyage of adventure. ♦ Corineus goeth a-hunting. ♦ Corineus: his prowess. ♦ Goffarius vanquished. ♦ A battle nigh Tours. ♦ Goffarius boasteth. ♦ Corineus: his stratagem. ♦ How Tours city was named. ♦ Brute landeth at Totnes. ♦ The giant Goemagot. ♦ New Troy founded. ♦ London and King Lud.


Book 2

Locrine and Ignoge. ♦ Locrine and Estrildis. ♦ Locrine weddeth Gwendolen. ♦ Gwendolen’s revenge. ♦ Maddan and his is sons. ♦ Mempricius and Ebraucus. ♦ Ebrauc’s children. ♦ Brute Greenshield. ♦ Bladud foundeth Bath.

King Lear and his daughters. ♦ Lear wroth with Cordelia. ♦ Cordelia married into France. ♦ Lear’s piteous plight. ♦ Lear seeketh Cordelia. ♦ Cordelia’s compassion. ♦ Lear’s honourable reception. ♦ Lear recovereth his kingdom.

Margan and Cunedag. ♦ Ferrex and Porrex. ♦ Dunwallo Molmutius. ♦ The Molmutine laws. ♦ Dunwallo buried.


Book 3

Belinus and Brennius. ♦ Brennius fareth into Norway. ♦ Brennius robbed of his bride. ♦ Belinus conquereth Brennius. ♦ Guichlac’s petition granted. ♦ Belinus maketh royal roads. ♦ Segin receiveth Brennius. ♦ Brennius weddeth a Gaulish wife. ♦ Conwenna reconcileth her sons. ♦ The kiss of peace. ♦ The brothers invade Gaul. ♦ They take Rome. ♦ Rome recovered. ♦ Brennius in Italy. ♦ Belinus returneth to Britain. ♦ Spaniards settle in Ireland. ♦ The Mercian law. ♦ Morvid: his cruelty. ♦ Gorbonian ruleth well. ♦ Arthgallo ruleth ill. ♦ Elidur’s piety. ♦ Elidur three times King. ♦ Succession of Kings. ♦ Lud the city-builder. ♦ Cassibelaunus king.


Book 4

Cæsar beholdeth Britain. ♦ A brave letter. ♦ Cæsar saileth to Britain. ♦ Nennius: his valour. ♦ Cæsar fleeth to his ships. ♦ Death of Nennius. ♦ Cæsar’s second attempt. ♦ A battle on the Thames. ♦ Cæsar again fleeth. ♦ A deadly quarrel. ♦ Cæsar invited to Britain. ♦ Androgeus’ letter. ♦ Cæsar’s third arrival. ♦ Cassibelaunus defeated. ♦ Britons a noble race. ♦ Androgeus pleadeth with Cæsar. ♦ Cæsar quitteth Britain. ♦ Cymbeline and his sons. ♦ Claudius and Hamo. ♦ Hamo killed at Southampton. ♦ Arviragus weddeth Genuissa. ♦ Gloucester builded. ♦ Vespasian at Exeter. ♦ Marius defeateth Rodric. ♦ Coill loveth the Romans. ♦ Of King Lucius. ♦ Flamens and Bishops.


Book 5

Lucius the Glorious dieth. ♦ Severus defeateth Fulgenius. ♦ Carausius the Pirate. ♦ Bassianus betrayed. ♦ Allectus is slain. ♦ Siege of London. ♦ Diocletian: his persecution. ♦ Coel slayeth Asclepiodotus. ♦ Queen Helena. ♦ Constantine succeedeth. ♦ Constantine Emperor Rome. ♦ Octavius retrieveth defeat. ♦ Conan thinketh to be King. ♦ Maurice inviteth Maximian. ♦ Maximian cometh to Britain. ♦ Octavius affrighted. ♦ Maurice: his crafty device. ♦ Caradoc his speech to Octavian. ♦ Maximian and Conan reconciled. ♦ Maximian invadeth Armorica. ♦ Maximian covenanteth with Conan. ♦ He peopleth the land with Britons. ♦ Conan sendeth for British women. ♦ Ursula and 11,000 virgins. ♦ The virgins shipwrecked. ♦ Gratian Municeps and Gratian the Emperor.


Book 6

Gratian Municeps slain. ♦ The Romans leave Britain. ♦ Archbishop Guethelin. ♦ Guanius and Melga again. ♦ The witless Briton. ♦ A fruitless petition. ♦ Guethelin and Aldroen. ♦ Constantine of Brittany. ♦ Constantine victorious. ♦ Constans the monk crowned. ♦ Constans a do-nought King. ♦ Vortigern hatcheth treason. ♦ Vortigern bribeth the Picts. ♦ Constans is murdered. ♦ Vortigern usurpeth the crown. ♦ Horsus and Hengist. ♦ Vortigern covenanteth with Hengist. ♦ Hengist’s subtle craft. ♦ Hengist’s crafty petition. ♦ Hengist’s daughter Rowen. ♦ Wacht heil and Drinc heil. ♦ Vortigern wedded Rowen. ♦ More Saxons arrive. ♦ Vortimer made King. ♦ Rowen poisoneth Vortimer. ♦ Hengist returns. ♦ Hengist: his treachery. ♦ Massacre of Britons. ♦ Eldol of Gloucester. ♦ Vortigern’s tower. ♦ Finding of Merlin. ♦ Merlin’s father. ♦ Merlin and the magicians. ♦ The magicians dumbfounded.


Book 7

Geoffrey’s address to Bishop Alexander. ♦ Merlin’s prophecies.


Book 8

Merlin foretelleth the king’s death. ♦ Aurelius made King. ♦ Eldol joineth Aurelius. ♦ Hengist alarmed. ♦ Aurelius marcheth north. ♦ Hengist meeteth Aurelius. ♦ Battle at Maesbeli. ♦ Battle at Knaresborough. ♦ Eldol taketh Hengist prisoner. ♦ Aurelius is victor. ♦ Eldad’s counsel. ♦ Aurelius at York. ♦ London, Winchester and Salisbury. ♦ Merlin summoned. ♦ The dance of Giants. ♦ Uther goeth to Ireland. ♦ Merlin’s engines. ♦ Stonehenge erected. ♦ Pascentius joineth Gilloman. ♦ Eopa’s treachery. ♦ Eopa poisoneth Aurelius. ♦ Merlin readeth the portent. ♦ Aurelius is dead. ♦ Uther Pendragon crowned. ♦ Siege of York. ♦ Gorlois giveth counsel. ♦ Uther cometh London. ♦ Gorlois goeth into Cornwall. ♦ Uther sendeth for Merlin. ♦ Merlin’s magic arts. ♦ Uther deceiveth Igerne. ♦ Uther weddeth Igerne. ♦ Of Octa and Eosa. ♦ Battle at Verulam. ♦ The Britons victorious. ♦ Saxons ever treacherous. ♦ Uther dieth of poison.


Book 9

Dubricius crowneth Arthur. ♦ Arthur’s first battles. ♦ Baldulf: his craft. ♦ Battle of Lincoln. ♦ Saxons ever treacherous. ♦ The siege of Bath. ♦ Arthur’s armour. ♦ Victory at Bath. ♦ Arthur at Alclud. ♦ Cador slayeth Cheldric. ♦ Arthur pardoneth the Scots. ♦ Marvels of Britain. ♦ Lot, Urian and Angusel. ♦ Arthur weddeth Guenevere. ♦ Of Arthur’s Court. ♦ Lot, King of Norway. ♦ Flollo challenges Arthur. ♦ Duel with Flollo. ♦ Bedevere and Kay. ♦ Arthur at Caerleon. ♦ The glories of Caerleon. ♦ Guests at Court. ♦ Arthur’s coronation. ♦ A State banquet. ♦ Tourneys and games. ♦ Lucius Hiberius: his letter. ♦ Cador jesteth. ♦ Let Rome pay tribute to us. ♦ not we to Rome. ♦ Hoel’s speech. ♦ Angusel’s speech. ♦ Numbers of the host.


Book 10

The Roman muster. ♦ Arthur’s vision. ♦ Arthur fighteth a giant. ♦ Bedevere and the old woman. ♦ Arthur and the giant. ♦ Of the giant Ritho. ♦ Arthur at Autun. ♦ Boso of Oxford. ♦ and Guerin of Chartres. ♦ Petreius Cotta. ♦ Boso’s enterprise. ♦ Duke Cador and Richer. ♦ Bedevere and Borel. ♦ Lucius thinketh to flee. ♦ Captains of the host. ♦ Arthur’s speech. ♦ They shall march to Rome. ♦ Lucius: his speech. ♦ The host marshalled. ♦ The battle begins. ♦ Bedevere slain. ♦ Hireglas avengeth Bedevere. ♦ Many Romans slain. ♦ Hoel and Gawain. ♦ Gawain fighteth Lucius. ♦ Arthur’s valour. ♦ The Romans defeated. ♦ The burials. ♦ Treason of Mordred.


Book 11

Arthur hasteneth to Britain. ♦ Gawain slain at Richborough. ♦ Mordred fleeth to Cornwall,. ♦ whither Arthur followeth. ♦ Arthur mortally wounded. ♦ Constantine succeedeth him. ♦ Succession of Kings. ♦ Careticus hated of all. ♦ Geoffrey: his sermon. ♦ Loegria occupied by Saxons. ♦ Civil wars. ♦ Pope Gregory and Augustine. ♦ Abbot Dinoot. ♦ Ethelfrid defeated.


Book 12

Ethelfrid and Cadvan. ♦ Cadwallo and Edwin. ♦ Brian’s speech. ♦ Cadwallo refuseth Edwin. ♦ The wizard Pellitus. ♦ Brian’s new art. ♦ Solomon of Brittany. ♦ succoureth Cadwallo. ♦ Cadwallo’s speech. ♦ Bretons and Britons. ♦ Brian cometh to York. ♦ and slayeth Pellitus. ♦ Cadwallo returneth to Britain. ♦ and defeateth all enemies. ♦ Peanda slayeth Oswald. ♦ Oswi hatcheth treason. ♦ Margadud: his speech. ♦ Peanda slain. ♦ Cadwallader made King. ♦ Cadwallader’s lament. ♦ The Saxons return. ♦ The Britons shall prevail hereafter. ♦ Cadwallader dieth. ♦ Of the Welsh. ♦ Geoffrey’s farewell.


The Translator’s Epilogue

Geoffrey Arthur. ♦ Henry of Huntingdon. ♦ Robert of Torigni. ♦ Henry’s abstract. ♦ The Cornish giants. ♦ Lucrine and Gondolovea. ♦ The Passing of Arthur. ♦ Arthur not dead. ♦ J. R. Sinner’s Bern MS.. ♦ Double dedication. ♦ to Stephen and Robert. ♦ Sir Frederick Madden. ♦ Date of Robert’s death. ♦ Three different dates. ♦ 1148 probably correct. ♦ Geoffrey’s position in 1148. ♦ Dedication to Robert, 1138. ♦ Geoffrey’s motives. ♦ Anarchy of the time. ♦ Geoffrey to Bishop. ♦ of St. Asaph. ♦ Geoffrey’s death. ♦ Merlin’s prophecies. ♦ Abbot Suger. ♦ Abbot Suger. ♦ Merlin’s prophecies. ♦ Suger’s praise of Merlin. ♦ Geoffrey’s Epic of. ♦ the Kings of Britain. ♦ The British Empire. ♦ of the Angevin Kings. ♦ Henry I.: his policy. ♦ Origin of the Epic. ♦ Text of the Histories. ♦ “Extra” Merlins. ♦ Prophecy and politics. ♦ Date of the prophecies. ♦ The Bern MS.. ♦ Previous translation. ♦ Translation of names. ♦ Milton and Geoffrey. ♦ Milton on ‘Brute Kings’.



Geoffrey of Monmouth
by David Nash Ford
at britannia.com


Geoffrey of Monmouth
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Geoffrey of Monmouth

Geoffrey is traditionally said to have been a Welshman, born somewhere in the region of Monmouth around 1100, though one or both of his parents may have come from Brittany. His father's name was apparently Arthur, a man who would perhaps have told his son stories of his Royal namesake from an early age.

Local tradition makes Geoffrey a Benedictine monk at Monmouth Priory, if not the actual prior. However, this seems to be due to a misidentification with his contemporary, Prior Geoffrey the Short of Monmouth. Certainly 'Geoffrey's Window' at which he is said to have sat and written his famous works and 'Geoffrey's Study' used as a schoolroom within the Priory Gatehouse are only of late 15th century date. At most it seems that Geoffrey might perhaps have been educated at Monmouth Priory. Some say, erroneously, that his tutor was an uncle named Uchtryd who made him Archdeacon of Llandeilo or Llandaff when he became Bishop of the latter in around 1140.

A variety of obscure medieval records give only glimpses of the man's real life. By his late twenties, Geoffrey certainly seems to have travelled eastwards to become a secular Austin canon at the Collegiate Church of St. George at the castle in Oxford. He was a member of the college community there, and a tutor of some kind, for at least the next twenty years - witnessing a number of charters during his residence - but he turned to writing not long after his arrival. The 'Prophecies of Merlin' appear to have been a series of ancient Celtic prophecies which, at the request of Alexander of Salisbury, Bishop of Lincoln, Geoffrey translated into Latin, perhaps with some additions of his own. Whether they had previously been attributed to the Northern British bard, Myrddin, is unknown. As with all his works, Geoffrey hoped the prophecies might bring him a lucrative preferment in the Church, and he used its dedication to ingratiate himself with Alexander who was Bishop of his local diocese. Geoffrey made a more appreciative acquaintance while at St. George's, in the person of Walter the Provost, who was also Archdeacon of the city. In his writings, Geoffrey tells us that Walter gave him "a certain very ancient book written in the British language" and, probably because he was unable to read Welsh (or Breton) himself, the Archdeacon encouraged Geoffrey to translate it into Latin.

So, in about 1136, the Welshman set about writing his 'History of the Kings of Britain' dedicated to Robert, Earl of Gloucester, and Waleran, Count of Mellent. Whether this was a straight translation of an Ôancient book' or contained considerable embellishments, if not worse, from Geoffrey himself has been the subject of heated debate for many generations. At the time, the work was taken at face value and accepted by most as a true history of the Welsh nation from around 1100 bc to around AD 689. Merlin appeared again, as an advisor to Kings Ambrosius and Uther, but the work was most notable for its extensive chapters covering the reign of the great King Arthur. Since the 17th century, however, its author has been largely vilified as an inexorable forger who made up his stories "from an inordinate love of lying." Modern historians tend to be slightly more sympathetic. Parts of Geoffrey's work certainly seem to have their origins in ancient Celtic mythology, others could have come from works by authors such as Gildas, Nennius, Bede and also the Mabinogion. But there are also hints that he had access to at least one other work unknown to us today. His 'King Tenvantius of Britain,' for example, was otherwise unknown to historians until archaeologists began to uncover Iron Age coins struck for a tribal leader in Hertfordshire named Tasciovantus. Some people consider the several copies of a Welsh version of Geoffrey known as the 'Brut y Brenhinedd' to be his original 'ancient book'. However, the 'Chronicle of Saint Brieuc' makes reference to several of Geoffrey's characters apparently from a source called the 'Ystoria Britannica'.

At the end of 1150, Geoffrey appears to have come into the possession of further source documents concerning the life-story of his original subject, the bard, Myrddin (alias Merlin). Unfortunately, these did not line up terribly well the information he had given about this man in his 'History of the Kings of Britain' - perhaps indicating that this part was either invented or, more probably, that Merlin's name had been rather over-eagerly attributed to an otherwise unknown Royal adviser. Keen to put across the true story, without loosing face, Geoffrey wrote the 'Life of Merlin,' correctly placing its events after the reign of Arthur, but thus giving his title role an impossibly long lifespan. It was dedicated to his former colleague at St. George's, Robert De Chesney, the new Bishop of Lincoln.

The following year, Geoffrey's sycophancy at last paid off. He was elected Bishop of St. Asaphs, for good service to his Norman masters; and was consecrated by Archbishop Theobald at Lambeth Palace in February 1152. As a Welsh-speaker, he was probably chosen in an attempt to make the diocesanal administration more acceptable in an age when Normans were not at all popular in the areas of Wales which they controlled. However, the strategy seems to have been unsuccessful. Owain Gwynedd's open rebellion was in full swing and Geoffrey appears to have never even visited his bishopric. He died four years later, probably in London.



Sources

Barber, R. (1961) King Arthur: Hero and Legend, London: St. Martin's Press.

Harrison, J. (2001) "Geoffrey of Monmouth" in Monmouth Priory, Monmouth: Vicar & Parochial Church Council of Monmouth.

Kissack, K. (1996) The Lordship, Parish & Borough of Monmouth, Hereford: Lapridge Publications.

Lacy, N.J. (ed.) (1996) The New Arthurian Encyclopedia, London: Garland Publishing Inc.

Roberts, B.F. (1991) "Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae and Brut y Brenhinedd" in R. Bromwich et al. (ed.s)'s The Arthur of the Welsh Cardiff: University of Wales Press

Thorpe, L. (1976) "Introduction" in Geoffrey of Monmouth's The History of the Kings of Britain, London: Penguin Books Ltd.


    Table of Contents    



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The History of the Kings of Britain The History of the Kings of Britain

The History of the Kings of Britain The History of the Kings of Britain (Penguin Classics)

Completed in 1136, this classic chronicle traces the story of the realm from its supposed foundation by Brutus to the coming of the Saxons some two thousand years later. Vividly portraying legendary and semi-legendary figures such as Lear, Cymbeline, Merlin the magician, and the most famous of all British heroes, King Arthur, it is as much myth as it is history, and its veracity was questioned by other medieval writers. But Geoffrey of Monmouth’s powerful evocation of illustrious men and deeds captured the imagination of subsequent generations, and his influence can be traced through the works of Malory, Shakespeare, Dryden, and Tennyson.

Lewis Thorpe’s translation from the Latin brings us an accurate and enthralling version of Geoffrey’s remarkable narrative. His introduction discusses in depth the aims of the author and his possible sources, and describes the impact of this work on British literature.

About the Author

Geoffrey of Monmouth was a Welsh cleric and British historiographer who lived during the twelfth century. He is best known for his chronicle The History of the Kings of Britain, which, though now considered historically unreliable, was widely popular in its day and is cited as an important work of national myth.

Lewis Thorpe was professor of French at Nottingham University from 1958 to 1977 and president of the British Branch of the International Arthurian Society. He published many books and articles on Arthur, both on the French and English traditions. He died in 1977.

Paperback: 384 pages
Publisher: Penguin Books; 1st edition (January 27, 1977)

The History of England, Volume I The History of England, Volume I

The History of England, Volume I The History of England, Volume I

No details.

Paperback: 456 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (May 14, 2017)

The Story of Britain: From the Romans to the Present: A Narrative History The Story of Britain: From the Romans to the Present: A Narrative History

The Story of Britain: From the Romans to the Present: A Narrative History The Story of Britain: From the Romans to the Present: A Narrative History

“A beautifully written story, a box of delights, a treasure trove: final proof of truth’s superiority over fiction.”―Andrew Roberts

A sparkling anecdotal account with the pace of an epic, about the men and women who created turning points in history. Rebecca Fraser's dramatic portrayal of the scientists, statesmen, explorers, soldiers, traders, and artists who forged Britain's national institutions is the perfect introduction to British history.

Just as much as kings and queens, battles and empire, Britain's great themes have been the liberty of the individual, the rule of law, and the parliamentary democracy invented to protect them. Ever since Caractacus and Boudicca surprised the Romans with the bravery of their resistance, Britain has stood out as the home of freedom. From Thomas More to William Wilberforce, from Gladstone to Churchill, Britain's history is studded with heroic figures who have resisted tyranny in all its guises, whether it be the Stuart kings' belief in divine right, the institution of slavery, or the ambitions of Napoleon and Hitler. 154 illustrations

About the Author

Rebecca Fraser has worked as a researcher, an editor, and a journalist, and has written for many publications, including Tatler, Vogue, The Times, and The Spectator. She is the author of Charlotte Brontë and lives in England.

Paperback: 848 pages
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company; Reprint edition (November 17, 2006)

The Urantia Book The Urantia Book
The Urantia Book The Urantia Book

Love

Love is truly contagious and eternally creative. (p. 2018) “Devote your life to proving that love is the greatest thing in the world.” (p. 2047) “Love is the ancestor of all spiritual goodness, the essence of the true and the beautiful.” (p. 2047) The Father’s love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man’s personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows. (p. 1289) The secret of a better civilization is bound up in the Master’s teachings of the brotherhood of man, the good will of love and mutual trust. (p. 2065)

Prayer

Prayer is not a technique of escape from conflict but rather a stimulus to growth in the very face of conflict. (p. 1002) The sincerity of any prayer is the assurance of its being heard. … (p. 1639) God answers man’s prayer by giving him an increased revelation of truth, an enhanced appreciation of beauty, and an augmented concept of goodness. (p. 1002) …Never forget that the sincere prayer of faith is a mighty force for the promotion of personal happiness, individual self-control, social harmony, moral progress, and spiritual attainment. (p. 999)

Suffering

There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. (p. 364) Mortals only learn wisdom by experiencing tribulation. (p. 556)

Angels

The angels of all orders are distinct personalities and are highly individualized. (p. 285) Angels....are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them. (p. 419)

Our Divine Destiny

If you are a willing learner, if you want to attain spirit levels and reach divine heights, if you sincerely desire to reach the eternal goal, then the divine Spirit will gently and lovingly lead you along the pathway of sonship and spiritual progress. (p. 381) …They who know that God is enthroned in the human heart are destined to become like him—immortal. (p. 1449) God is not only the determiner of destiny; he is man’s eternal destination. (p. 67)

Family

Almost everything of lasting value in civilization has its roots in the family. (p. 765) The family is man’s greatest purely human achievement. ... (p. 939)

Faith

…Faith will expand the mind, ennoble the soul, reinforce the personality, augment the happiness, deepen the spirit perception, and enhance the power to love and be loved. (p. 1766) “Now, mistake not, my Father will ever respond to the faintest flicker of faith.” (p. 1733)

History/Science

The story of man’s ascent from seaweed to the lordship of earthly creation is indeed a romance of biologic struggle and mind survival. (p. 731) 2,500,000,000 years ago… Urantia was a well developed sphere about one tenth its present mass. … (p. 658) 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of Urantia [Earth] history. (p. 660) 450,000,000 years ago the transition from vegetable to animal life occurred. (p. 669) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years. (p. 707) About five hundred thousand years ago…there were almost one-half billion primitive human beings on earth. … (p. 741) Adam and Eve arrived on Urantia, from the year A.D. 1934, 37,848 years ago. (p. 828)

From the Inside Flap

What’s Inside?

Parts I and II

God, the inhabited universes, life after death, angels and other beings, the war in heaven.

Part III

The history of the world, science and evolution, Adam and Eve, development of civilization, marriage and family, personal spiritual growth.

Part IV

The life and teachings of Jesus including the missing years. AND MUCH MORE…

Excerpts

God, …God is the source and destiny of all that is good and beautiful and true. (p. 1431) If you truly want to find God, that desire is in itself evidence that you have already found him. (p. 1440) When man goes in partnership with God, great things may, and do, happen. (p. 1467)

The Origin of Human Life, The universe is not an accident... (p. 53) The universe of universes is the work of God and the dwelling place of his diverse creatures. (p. 21) The evolutionary planets are the spheres of human origin…Urantia [Earth] is your starting point. … (p. 1225) In God, man lives, moves, and has his being. (p. 22)

The Purpose of Life, There is in the mind of God a plan which embraces every creature of all his vast domains, and this plan is an eternal purpose of boundless opportunity, unlimited progress, and endless life. (p. 365) This new gospel of the kingdom… presents a new and exalted goal of destiny, a supreme life purpose. (p. 1778)

Jesus, The religion of Jesus is the most dynamic influence ever to activate the human race. (p. 1091) What an awakening the world would experience if it could only see Jesus as he really lived on earth and know, firsthand, his life-giving teachings! (p. 2083)

Science, Science, guided by wisdom, may become man’s great social liberator. (p. 909) Mortal man is not an evolutionary accident. There is a precise system, a universal law, which determines the unfolding of the planetary life plan on the spheres of space. (p. 560)

Life after Death, God’s love is universal… He is “not willing that any should perish.” (p. 39) Your short sojourn on Urantia [Earth]…is only a single link, the very first in the long chain that is to stretch across universes and through the eternal ages. (p. 435) …Death is only the beginning of an endless career of adventure, an everlasting life of anticipation, an eternal voyage of discovery. (p. 159)

About the Author

The text of The Urantia Book was provided by one or more anonymous contributors working with a small staff which provided editorial and administrative support during the book's creation. The book bears no particular credentials (from a human viewpoint), relying instead on the power and beauty of the writing itself to persuade the reader of its authenticity.

Leather Bound: 2097 pages
Publisher: Urantia Foundation; Box Lea edition (August 25, 2015)

The History of England from the Norman Conquest to the Death of John (1066-1216) The History of England from the Norman Conquest to the Death of John (1066-1216)

The History of England from the Norman Conquest to the Death of John (1066-1216) The History of England from the Norman Conquest to the Death of John (1066-1216)

“We, conquered by William, have liberated the Conqueror’s land”. So reads the memorial to the British war dead at Bayeaux, Normandy. Commemorating those who gave their lives to free France in 1944, it also serves to remind people of an earlier conflict. For the English, the Norman conquest remains deeply embedded in the national psyche. As the last contested military invasion to have succeeded in conquering this proud island nation, the date of 1066 is the one every citizen can remember. For them, William will forever be the “Conqueror”, the last invader to beat them in an open fight. For others, notably the French, he is the “Bastard”, a reference not only to his lineage. William’s conquest of the island arguably made him the most important figure in shaping the course of English history, but modern caricatures of this vitally important medieval figure are largely based on ignorance. William is a fascinating and complex figure, in many ways the quintessential warrior king of this period. Inheriting the Duchy of Normandy while still an infant and forced to fight for his domain almost ceaselessly during his early years, William went on to conquer and rule England, five times larger and three times wealthier. In doing so, he demonstrated sophisticated political and diplomatic skill, military prowess and administrative acumen. Although he lived by the sword, he was a devout man who had only one wife, to whom he remained faithful. However, peering back nearly 1,000 years to understand William does not just require a suspension of 21st century values and prejudices, because the evidence itself is far from complete. The historical record includes chronicles and documents, most notably the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the famous Domesday Book and the Bayeux tapestry, leaving scholars to attempt the meticulous and painstaking process of piecing together the narrative of his life and determining what William and the Normans might actually have been like. At the same time, those scholars are the first to admit the limitations of these abilities, since the few people who could write in medieval England and Normandy often had important agendas and prejudices of their own, or they were recording events decades after they occurred.

Paperback: 208 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (June 15, 2014)

England: A History England: A History

England: A History England: A History

English history is the story of a people who first settled an island off the coast of continental Europe thousands of years ago and went on to rule most of the known world. This fascinating book spans centuries and shows how people like Richard the Lionheart and Elizabeth I and events such as the Norman Conquest and the defeat of the Spanish Armada shaped not just Britain but the world as we know it.

Paperback: 248 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (December 3, 2016)

The Routledge Atlas of British History The Routledge Atlas of British History

The Routledge Atlas of British History The Routledge Atlas of British History

The evolving story of the British Isles forms the central theme of this fascinating and compelling atlas, which covers England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales – and the expansion and gradual disintegration of Britain’s overseas empire. This new edition includes:

  • Politics – from the Saxon kingdoms and the collapse of England’s French Empire to the Tudors and Stuarts, the English Civil War, the Restoration, Parliamentary Reform, the Commonwealth and Europe, the European Union and the Coalition Government formed in 2010
  • War and conflict – from Viking attacks and the Norman Invasion to the Armada, two World Wars and the end of empire, the Falklands War, the Gulf War, British forces overseas, terror at home and the wars in Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Afghanistan and Iraq
  • Trade and industry – from the post-Norman economy and Tudor trade to industrial unrest and the opening of international trade routes, imports and exports, arms sales and British humanitarian aid overseas
  • Religion – from the Saxon Church to the Reformation and the multi-cultural Britain of modern times
  • Society and economics – from civilian life in Roman Britain to the Industrial and Agricultural revolutions, the General Strike and the growth of universities, unemployment, homelessness, charitable activities and government expenditure
  • Immigration – the growth of immigrant communities, the wide range of countries from which immigrants came, citizenship applications and citizenship granted.

Sir Martin Gilbert is Winston Churchill’s official biographer, and one of Britain’s leading historians, having written eighty-two books in total. He is an Honorary Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and a Distinguished Fellow of Hillsdale College, Michigan. He has also most recently served on the committee of the Iraq Inquiry set up by the British Government. For more information, please visit www.martingilbert.com.


About the Author

Sir Martin Gilbert is Winston Churchill’s official biographer, and one of Britain’s leading historians, having written eighty-two books in total. He is an Honorary Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and a Distinguished Fellow of Hillsdale College, Michigan. He has also most recently served on the committee of the Iraq Inquiry set up by the British Government. For more information, please visit www.martingilbert.com.

Paperback: 224 pages
Publisher: Routledge; 5 edition (May 27, 2011)


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