Reality Roars Bentley
Header
Reality Roars Header
Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation(Blackwell Sourcebooks in Ancient History)
Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation(Blackwell Sourcebooks in Ancient History) Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation

This book presents new translations of Mesopotamian and ancient Near Eastern historiographic texts, providing the reader with the primary sources for the history of the ancient Near East.

  • A primary source book presenting new translations of Mesopotamian and ancient Near Eastern historiographic texts, and other related materials.
  • Helps readers to understand the historical context of the Near East.
  • Covers the period from the earliest historical and literary texts (c.2700 B.C.) to the latest Hellenistic historians who comment on ancient Near Eastern history (c.250 B.C.)
  • Texts range from the code of Hammurabi to the Assyrian royal inscriptions.
  • A detailed commentary is provided on each text, placing it in its historical and cultural context.
  • Maps, illustrations and a chronological table help to orientate the reader.

From the Back Cover

This book provides the reader with the primary sources for the history of the ancient Near East. Covering the period from the earliest historical and literary texts (ca. 2700 BC) to the advent of Alexander the Great (331 BC), it presents new translations of Mesopotamian and ancient Near Eastern historiographic texts, and other related materials.

An opening chapter sets out the themes of the book and discusses the difficulties of translating cuneiform texts into English, as well as the difficulty of reconstructing ancient Near Eastern history from textual sources. Texts featured in the main body of the book range from the code of Hammurabi to the Assyrian royal inscriptions. For each text, a detailed commentary is provided, placing it in its historical and cultural context. A map helps to orient the reader.

Paperback: 468 pages
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell; 1 edition (July 21, 2006)

A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75 (Blackwell History of the Ancient World) A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75 (Blackwell History of the Ancient World)
A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75 (Blackwell History of the Ancient World) A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75

Provides a new narrative history of the ancient world, from the beginnings of civilization in the ancient Near East and Egypt to the fall of Constantinople

Written by an expert in the field, this book presents a narrative history of Babylon from the time of its First Dynasty (1880-1595) until the last centuries of the city’s existence during the Hellenistic and Parthian periods (ca. 331-75 AD). Unlike other texts on Ancient Near Eastern and Mesopotamian history, it offers a unique focus on Babylon and Babylonia, while still providing readers with an awareness of the interaction with other states and peoples. Organized chronologically, it places the various socio-economic and cultural developments and institutions in their historical context. The book also gives religious and intellectual developments more respectable coverage than books that have come before it.

A History of Babylon, 2200 BC – AD 75 teaches readers about the most important phase in the development of Mesopotamian culture. The book offers in-depth chapter coverage on the Sumero-Addadian Background, the rise of Babylon, the decline of the first dynasty, Kassite ascendancy, the second dynasty of Isin, Arameans and Chaldeans, the Assyrian century, the imperial heyday, and Babylon under foreign rule.

  • Focuses on Babylon and Babylonia
  • Written by a highly regarded Assyriologist
  • Part of the very successful Histories of the Ancient World series
  • An excellent resource for students, instructors, and scholars

A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75 is a profound text that will be ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses on Ancient Near Eastern and Mesopotamian history and scholars of the subject.

About the Author

Paul-Alain Beaulieu, PhD, is Professor of Assyriology at the University of Toronto. He is the author of several articles and books on the history and culture of Babylonia, as well as the greater spectrum of Mesopotamian history. He has been teaching Assyriology and Ancient Near Eastern History for more than twenty years.

Paperback: 312 pages
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell; 1 edition (February 5, 2018)

Sumeria: The Eastern Source of Western Civilisation Sumeria: The Eastern Source of Western Civilisation

Sumeria: The Eastern Source of Western Civilisation Sumeria:The Eastern Source of Western Civilisation

Who were the Sumerians, where did they come from, in which language did they write and speak in Mesopotamia? Why is it that the city of Ur mentioned in the bible and from where Abraham came, was in fact pronounced like Rome and Abraham himself was a Sumerian of many generations, mistakenly believed to come from Semite origins? These questions form the basis of a fascinating and stimulating analysis by Tay Efti. In his book he refers to previous research in the study of Sumeria and the latest genetic research as well as an analysis of the available linguistic material in the field of Sumerology. His challenging discoveries have significant implications and call for a re examination of the origins of Western Culture and indeed the cultural origins of humanity as a whole. The core assertions and values of European civilisations are most probably based on the achievements of Sumerians and Etruscans who themselves are related ethnically and through language. After defeat at the hands of pagan tribes, the Sumerians migrated to various lands to the south, to Europe and Asia bringing with them their knowledge and beliefs and disseminating their culture and thought throughout the known world. Tay Efti maintains that the Sumerians did not disappear but moved to new lands and adapted their culture and knowledge to new circumstances, sustaining and transmitting their values into new environments which can be proved to form the basis of Western culture and civilisation.

Paperback: 226 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (February 18, 2016)

The Urantia Book The Urantia Book
The Urantia Book The Urantia Book

Love

Love is truly contagious and eternally creative. (p. 2018) “Devote your life to proving that love is the greatest thing in the world.” (p. 2047) “Love is the ancestor of all spiritual goodness, the essence of the true and the beautiful.” (p. 2047) The Father’s love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man’s personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows. (p. 1289) The secret of a better civilization is bound up in the Master’s teachings of the brotherhood of man, the good will of love and mutual trust. (p. 2065)

Prayer

Prayer is not a technique of escape from conflict but rather a stimulus to growth in the very face of conflict. (p. 1002) The sincerity of any prayer is the assurance of its being heard. … (p. 1639) God answers man’s prayer by giving him an increased revelation of truth, an enhanced appreciation of beauty, and an augmented concept of goodness. (p. 1002) …Never forget that the sincere prayer of faith is a mighty force for the promotion of personal happiness, individual self-control, social harmony, moral progress, and spiritual attainment. (p. 999)

Suffering

There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. (p. 364) Mortals only learn wisdom by experiencing tribulation. (p. 556)

Angels

The angels of all orders are distinct personalities and are highly individualized. (p. 285) Angels....are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them. (p. 419)

Our Divine Destiny

If you are a willing learner, if you want to attain spirit levels and reach divine heights, if you sincerely desire to reach the eternal goal, then the divine Spirit will gently and lovingly lead you along the pathway of sonship and spiritual progress. (p. 381) …They who know that God is enthroned in the human heart are destined to become like him—immortal. (p. 1449) God is not only the determiner of destiny; he is man’s eternal destination. (p. 67)

Family

Almost everything of lasting value in civilization has its roots in the family. (p. 765) The family is man’s greatest purely human achievement. ... (p. 939)

Faith

…Faith will expand the mind, ennoble the soul, reinforce the personality, augment the happiness, deepen the spirit perception, and enhance the power to love and be loved. (p. 1766) “Now, mistake not, my Father will ever respond to the faintest flicker of faith.” (p. 1733)

History/Science

The story of man’s ascent from seaweed to the lordship of earthly creation is indeed a romance of biologic struggle and mind survival. (p. 731) 2,500,000,000 years ago… Urantia was a well developed sphere about one tenth its present mass. … (p. 658) 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of Urantia [Earth] history. (p. 660) 450,000,000 years ago the transition from vegetable to animal life occurred. (p. 669) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years. (p. 707) About five hundred thousand years ago…there were almost one-half billion primitive human beings on earth. … (p. 741) Adam and Eve arrived on Urantia, from the year A.D. 1934, 37,848 years ago. (p. 828)

From the Inside Flap

What’s Inside?

Parts I and II

God, the inhabited universes, life after death, angels and other beings, the war in heaven.

Part III

The history of the world, science and evolution, Adam and Eve, development of civilization, marriage and family, personal spiritual growth.

Part IV

The life and teachings of Jesus including the missing years. AND MUCH MORE…

Excerpts

God, …God is the source and destiny of all that is good and beautiful and true. (p. 1431) If you truly want to find God, that desire is in itself evidence that you have already found him. (p. 1440) When man goes in partnership with God, great things may, and do, happen. (p. 1467)

The Origin of Human Life, The universe is not an accident... (p. 53) The universe of universes is the work of God and the dwelling place of his diverse creatures. (p. 21) The evolutionary planets are the spheres of human origin…Urantia [Earth] is your starting point. … (p. 1225) In God, man lives, moves, and has his being. (p. 22)

The Purpose of Life, There is in the mind of God a plan which embraces every creature of all his vast domains, and this plan is an eternal purpose of boundless opportunity, unlimited progress, and endless life. (p. 365) This new gospel of the kingdom… presents a new and exalted goal of destiny, a supreme life purpose. (p. 1778)

Jesus, The religion of Jesus is the most dynamic influence ever to activate the human race. (p. 1091) What an awakening the world would experience if it could only see Jesus as he really lived on earth and know, firsthand, his life-giving teachings! (p. 2083)

Science, Science, guided by wisdom, may become man’s great social liberator. (p. 909) Mortal man is not an evolutionary accident. There is a precise system, a universal law, which determines the unfolding of the planetary life plan on the spheres of space. (p. 560)

Life after Death, God’s love is universal… He is “not willing that any should perish.” (p. 39) Your short sojourn on Urantia [Earth]…is only a single link, the very first in the long chain that is to stretch across universes and through the eternal ages. (p. 435) …Death is only the beginning of an endless career of adventure, an everlasting life of anticipation, an eternal voyage of discovery. (p. 159)

About the Author

The text of The Urantia Book was provided by one or more anonymous contributors working with a small staff which provided editorial and administrative support during the book's creation. The book bears no particular credentials (from a human viewpoint), relying instead on the power and beauty of the writing itself to persuade the reader of its authenticity.

Leather Bound: 2097 pages
Publisher: Urantia Foundation; Box Lea edition (August 25, 2015)

The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character (Phoenix Books) The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character (Phoenix Books)

The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character (Phoenix Books) The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character

The Sumerians, the pragmatic and gifted people who preceded the Semites in the land first known as Sumer and later as Babylonia, created what was probably the first high civilization in the history of man, spanning the fifth to the second millenniums B.C. This book is an unparalleled compendium of what is known about them.

Professor Kramer communicates his enthusiasm for his subject as he outlines the history of the Sumerian civilization and describes their cities, religion, literature, education, scientific achievements, social structure, and psychology. Finally, he considers the legacy of Sumer to the ancient and modern world.

"There are few scholars in the world qualified to write such a book, and certainly Kramer is one of them. . . . One of the most valuable features of this book is the quantity of texts and fragments which are published for the first time in a form available to the general reader. For the layman the book provides a readable and up-to-date introduction to a most fascinating culture. For the specialist it presents a synthesis with which he may not agree but from which he will nonetheless derive stimulation."—American Journal of Archaeology

"An uncontested authority on the civilization of Sumer, Professor Kramer writes with grace and urbanity."—Library Journal

Paperback: 372 pages
Publisher: University of Chicago Press; Revised ed. edition (February 15, 1971)

Sumeria: The Earliest Western Civilization Sumeria: The Earliest Western Civilization

Sumeria: The Earliest Western Civilization Sumeria: The Earliest Western Civilization

Sumer was the first ancient urban civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages, and arguably the first civilization in the world. Proto-writing in the region dates back to c. 3500 BC. The earliest texts come from the cities of Uruk and Jemdet Nasr and date back to 3300 BC; early cuneiform writing emerged in 3000 BC. Modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c. 5500 and 4000 BC by a West Asian people who spoke the Sumerian language (pointing to the names of cities, rivers, basic occupations, etc., as evidence), a language isolate. These conjectured, prehistoric people are now called "proto-Euphrateans" or "Ubaidians", and are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia (Assyria). The Ubaidians (though never mentioned by the Sumerians themselves) are assumed by modern-day scholars to have been the first civilizing force in Sumer, draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery. However, some scholars contest the idea of a Proto-Euphratean language or one substrate language. It has been suggested by them and others, that the Sumerian language was originally that of the hunter and fisher peoples, who lived in the marshland and theEastern Arabia littoral region, and were part of the Arabian bifacial culture. Reliable historical records begin much later; there are none in Sumer of any kind that have been dated before Enmebaragesi (c. 26th century BC). Professor Juris Zarins believes the Sumerians were settled along the coast of Eastern Arabia, today's Persian Gulf region, before it flooded at the end of the Ice Age. Sumerian civilization took form in the Uruk period (4th millennium BC), continuing into the Jemdat Nasr and Early Dynastic periods. During the 3rd millennium BC, a close cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians, who spoke a language isolate, andAkkadian-speakers, which included widespread bilingualism. The Sumerian culture seems to have appeared as a fully formed civilization, with no pre-history. This book present a thorough history and background of the Sumerian civilization. This book is designed to be an overview of the topic and provide you with the structured knowledge to familiarize yourself with the topic at the most affordable price possible. The level of discussion is designed to be a more in-depth discussion than books such as “Computers for Dummies” but less technical than “The IEEE standards for the Core 2 Duo processor of the Intel Centrino chipset.” The accuracy and knowledge is of an international viewpoint as the edited articles represent the inputs of many knowledgeable individuals and some of the most currently available general knowledge on the topic based on the date of publication.

About the Author

The author has traveled extensively around the world studying world religions, cultural mythology and cultural anthropology. He has degrees from the University of Michigan and has worked in the corridors of power in Washington, DC and has informally studied the influence of belief systems on politics.

Paperback: 212 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1st Edition edition (May 30, 2016)

History Begins at Sumer History Begins at Sumer

History Begins at Sumer History Begins at Sumer

The very beginnings of man's history are recorded in the strange wedge-shaped marks inscribed upon the tablets of Sumer. Unearthed about at century ago from the mounds in Mesopotamia where they had lain for more than three thousand years, and deciphered only after decades of painstaking work, the tablets tell the story of civilization long forgotten, where culture as we know it was born. In this book, which won an award as the best foreign book of the year when it was published in France in 1957, Dr. Samuel Noah Kramer, America's foremost Sumerologist, describes twenty-seven "firsts" in human history and in this way constructs and intimate and vivid picture of everyday public and private life five thousand years ago.

Paperback: 247 pages
Publisher: Doubleday (1959)


#

#

Chronology
of
Babylonia and Assyria

EncyclopediaKids.net.au

#


The following article was originally based on content from the  1911  Encyclopedia Britannica, so it became partly obsolete. (An suggested updating below that text has been offered, by removing some of the conflicting numbers and offering much more absolute dates, mainly solar and lunar eclipse records.)

The later  chronology of  Assyria has long been fixed, thanks to the lists of limmi, or archons, who gave their names in succession to their years of office. Several copies of these lists from the library of  Nineveh are in existence, the earliest of which goes back to 911 B.C., while the latest comes down to the middle of the reign of Assur-bani-pal. The beginning of a king's reign is noted in the lists, and in some of them the chief events of the year are added to the name of its archon, Assyrian chronology is, therefore, certain from 911 B.C. to 666, and an  eclipse of the sun which is stated to have been visible in the month Sivan, 763 B.C., is one that has been calculated to have taken place on the 15th of June of that tear. The system of reckoning time by limmi was of Assyrian. origin, and recent discoveries have made it clear that it went back to the first days of the monarchy. Even in the distant colony at Kara Euyuk near Kaisariyeh (Caesarea) in Cappadocia cuneiform tablets show that the Assyrian settlers used it in the 15th century B.C. In  Babylonia a different system was adopted. Here the years were dated by the chief events that distinguished them, as was also the case in Egypt in the epoch of the Old Empire. What the event should be was determined by the government and notified to all its officials; one of these notices, sent to the Babylonian officials in Canaan in the reign of Samsuiluna, the son of Khammurabi, has been found in the Lebanon. A careful register of the dates was kept, divided into reigns, from which dynastic lists were afterwards compiled, giving the duration of each king's reign as well as that of the several dynasties. Two of these dynastic compilations have been discovered, unfortunately in an imperfect state.

In addition to the chronological tables, works of a more ambitious and literary character were also attempted of the nature of chronicles. One of these is the so-called "Synchronous History of Assyria and Babylonia," consisting of brief notices, written by an Assyrian, of the occasions on which the kings of the two countries had entered into relation, hostile or otherwise, with one another; a second is the Babylonian Chronicle discovered by Dr Th. G. Pinches, which gave a synopsis of Babylonian history from a Babylonian point of view, and was compiled in the reign of Darius. It is interesting to note that its author says of the battle of Khalule, which we know from the Assyrian inscriptions to have taken place in 691 or 690 B,C., that he does "not know the year" when it was fought: the records of Assyria had been already lost, even in Babylonia. The early existence of an accurate system of dating is not surprising; it was necessitated by the fact that Babylonia was a great trading community, in which it was not only needful that commercial and legal documents should be dated, but also that it should be possible to refer lasily to the dates of former business transactions. The Babylonian and Assyrian kings had consequently no difficulty in determining the age of their predecessors or of past events. Nabonidus (Nabunaid), who was more of an antiquarian than a politician, and spent his time in excavating the older temples of his country and ascertaining the names of their builders, tells us that Naram-Sin, the son of Sargon of Akkad, lived 3200 years before himself (i.e. 3750 B.c.), and Sagarakti-suryas 800 years; and we learn from Sennacherib that Shalmaneser I. reigned 600 years earlier, and that Tiglath-pileser I. fought with Merodach-nadin-akhi (Marduk-nadin-akh~) of Babylon 418 years before the campaign of 689 B.c.; while, according to Tiglath-pileser I., the high-priest Samas-Hadad, son of IsmeDagon, built the temple of Anu and Hadad at Assur 701 years before his own time. Shalmaneser I. in his turn states that the high-priest Samas-Hadad, the son of Bel-kabi, governed Assur 580 years previously, and that 159 years before this the highpriest Erisum was reigning there. The raid of the Elamite king Kutur-Nakhkhuntë is placed by Assur-bani-pal 1635 years before his own conquest of Susa, and Khammurabi is said by Nabonidus to have preceded Burna-buryas by 700 years.

Modern critical revision with suggested updating as follow:

It is generally accepted by the archaeological consnsus that the son of Sargon of Akkad cannot be placed as high as in 3750 BCE. As the reign of King Nabonidus ended by the accession of Cyrus in Babylonia around 539 or 538 BCE, the years may have been given by actual modern half years. The Jewish chronology[?] and the Old Testament has the same situation with the same dilemma. Their "years" may have been commenced both by the first day of Nisanu[?] (Nisan) and that of Tashritu[?] (Tishri[?]) in their remote histories. Therefore, it is likely that the correct interval is not 3200 but 1600. It is probably a rounded figure. One must be careful with the several intervals between rulers and events cited by the above mentioned unearthed documents. We cannot prove that a totally reliable chronological list was available for all the scribes, and they have been versed historians. They may have been pressed to give a figure but not enough time for a thorough research. Many of the figures contradict to each other, etc.

We start our list of Babylonian kings[?] with a significant ruler of Erech called Lugalzaggisi[?], placing him from 2411 to 2376. He was a contemporary of Urukagina[?] king of Lagash (reigned 2407-2399) and Sargon (2399-2343) king of Akkad.

After Sargon, the next king was Rimush[?](...). His contemporary in Ur was Ka-kug[?] or Ka-ku (2376-2341). The son and successor of Rimush was Manishtusu[?] (2334-2329), whose Assyrian viceroy was Abazu[?], son of Nuabu[?].

In this period the rulers of Kish were Simudarra[?] or Simudar (2399-2369), a contemporary of Sargon. After him Usi-watar[?] (2369-2362), Eshtarmuti[?] (2362-2351), Ishme-shamash[?] (2351-2340), and Nannia[?] (2340-2243) reigned in Kish.

In Akkad, after Manishtusu, the following kings reigned:

2329-2282 Naram-sin[?]
2282-2257 Shar-kali-sharri[?]

He was contemporary with the first Gutian[?] king, Erridupizir[?], and he later defeated Sarlagab, another king of Gutium[?].

2257-???? Igigi[?]Nanum[?], and Imi[?], pretenders
????-2254 Elulu[?], a pretender, maybe King Elul(u)mesh of Gutium.
2254-2233 Dudu[?]
2233-2218 Shu-durul[?]

Shu-durul was the last ruler. (Agade/Akkad was defeated by Erech. Then Erech dominated until 2194, then eight Median-Elamite[?] usurper tyrants ruled for 224 years, according to Berossos[?], from 2194 to 1970 BCE. Some of them are listed here.)

Erech:

2219-2212 Ur-nigin[?](ak)
2212-2206 Ur-gigir[?](ak)
2206-2200 Kudda or Gudea
2200-2195 Puzur-ili[?]
2195 (?) Lugal-melam[?] (?)
2195-2189 Ur-utu[?](k)
2189-2179 Utu-khegal[?] or Utu-khengal

He was a contemporary of Tirigan, the last king of the Guti[?].

During this period the Gutian[?] or Guti kings flourished as follow:

2280-2277 Erridupizir[?], the first ruler.
2277-2274 Imta[?]
2274-2268 Inkishush[?]
2268-2265 Sarlagab[?]
2265-2259 Shulme'[?]
2259-2253 Elulmesh[?] or Elulu-mesh
2253-2248 Inimabakesh[?]
2248-2242 Igeshaush[?]
2242-2227 Iarlangab[?] or Iarlagab
2227-2224 Ibate[?]

Ibate's name curiously reminds one to Ibates[?], one of the earliest ancestors in the Irish and the Scottish pedigrees.

2224-2221 Iarlangab[?]
2221-2220 Kurum[?]
2220-2217 Habil-kin[?]
2217-2215 La'erabum[?]
2215-2213 Irarum[?]
2213-2212 Ibranum[?]
2212-2210 Hablum[?]
2210-2203 Puzur-sin[?]
2203-2196 Iarlaganda[?]
2196-2189 Si'u or Si'um[?]
2189-2189 Tirigan[?]

Tirigan reigned only for 40 days, according to Jacobsen. His chrononolgical table (1934: 208 ff.) has placed the accession of Ur-Nammu[?] (Dynasty III of Ur[?]) ten years after the end of Utu-khegal[?]'s reign. His fall may or may not have coincided with his lost battle against Erech. This famous battle took place on the day of an eclipse of the moon, on the 14th day of the month Duzu[?] or Tammuz, from the first watch to the middle watch. See Schoch[?] (1927: B6-B8), and Thorkild Jacobsen[?]The Sumerian King List (Chicago, 1934: 203). This is the first eclipse record in the Near East that is identifiable with high probability. It took place on August 13, 2189 BC, with a magnitude of 120% which is remarkable.

After the defeat of Gutium, the Third Dynasty of Ur[?] was fourishing:

2179-2161 Ur-Nammu[?] or Ur-Engur[?]
2161-2113 Shulgi[?]

A double (solar and lunar) eclipse took place 23 years after Shulgi's accession to the throne. Prof. Jacob Klein[?] of Bar-Ilan University[?] in his book Three Sulgi hymns (1981: 59 and 81) tells that the first 23 years of his reing was peaceful, and that the sun was eclipsed on the horizon, just like the moon on the sky, during the first battles of Sulgi. (Most historians do not feel confident about their own astronomical profiency, therefore the extreme importance of this double eclipse record remained unnoticed. Another difficulty is that the reading has a questionmark.) Z.A. Simon adds that the lunar eclipse is mentioned first in the poem, because the worship of Sin (The moon) was predominant for them, and that the record is poetic, not that of an astronomer. This rare phaenomena[?] occurred on May 9, 2138 BCE (solar eclipse), with a magnitude of 34%. The lunar eclipse took place on May 24, 2138 BCE.

2113-2104 Amar-Sin[?] or Bur-Sin. His viceroy in Assyria was Zariqum[?].
2104-2095 Shu-Sin[?]

An eclipse of the moon observed in the month Simanu[?] (Sivan[?]) may be placed near the end of Shu-sin's reign, called patricide eclipse[?] in the literature. The clipse "drew through" and "equalized" the first watch, meaning that has coincided with it, then touched the second watch. It took place on July 25, 2095 BCE. Refer to Carl Schoch[?]Die Ur-Finsternis (Berlin, 1927: B6-B8). Professor Peter J. Huber[?]Astronomy and Ancient Chronology in the journal Accadica (Vol. 119-120 deals with this issue about the omen EAE 20-III. We have learned from him that it may have belonged the the death of Shulgi, or it may have been another king, for the name is not mentioned. (Therefore, it could have belonged to Shu-sin, we believe, also adding that the expression will wrong him does not necessarily mean murdering a king. We note here that the data evaluated by Huber (page 166) "rejects the middle chronologies on the 1% level... this is a strong argument against the correctness of the middle chronologies." (Editor's note: those are still in common use.)

2095-2070 Ibbi-Sin[?]

Ibbi-Sin's reign lasted for 24 or 26 years (S. Langdon and John K. Fotheringham[?]The Venus tablets of Ammizaduga[?], 1928). An eclipse of the moon caused terror shortly before his fall, in the month Addaru[?] or Adar. The real eclipse had a magnitude of 153%. (Schoch describes this eclipse as well, proposing a different candidate.)

A few years before the fall of Ibbi-Sin, another city started to flourish: Isin[?]. Its first ruler had emerged several years earlier. The kings of Isin are as follow:

2083-2050 Ishbi-erra[?]
2050-2040 Shu-ilishu[?]
2040-2019 Iddin-dagan[?]
2019-2000 Ishme-dagan[?]
2000-1989 Lipit-Ishtar[?]
1989-1961 Un-ninurta[?]
1961-1940 Bur-sin[?] or Amar-sin[?]
1940-1935 Lipit-enlil[?]
1935-1927 Erra-imitti[?] or Ura-imitti
1927-1927 Tabbaya[?]
1927-1903 Enlil-bani[?]
1903-1900 Zambiya[?]
1900-1896 Iter-pisha[?]
1896-1892 Ur-dulkugga[?]
1892-1881 Sin-magir[?]
1881-1858 Damiq-ilishu[?]

The First Dynasty of Babylon was almost contemporary with Isin. Their chronology is debated, because there is a King List A and a Babylonian King List B[?]. Hereby we follow the regnal years of List A, because those are widely used, although we believe that the other list is better, at least for one or two reigns out of the first six. (The reigns in List B are longer, in general. Unfortunately, it is not available for the editor.)

First Babylonian Dynasty:

1959-1945 Su-abu[?] or Suum-abum[?]
1945-1909 Sumula-ilum[?]
1909-1895 Sabium[?] or Sabum[?]
1895-1877 Apil-Sin[?]
1877-1857 Sin-muballit[?]
1857-1814 Hammurabi

His other name was Hammurapi-ilu[?], meaning Hammurapi the god or perhaps Hammurapi is god. He could have been Amraphel king of Sinear[?] in the Jewish records and the Bible, a contemporary of Abraham.

1814-1776 Samsu-ilana[?]
1776-1748 Abi-eshuh[?] or Abieshu
1748-1711 Ammi-ditana[?]
1711-1690 Ammi-zaduga[?] or Ammisaduqa

His Venus-tablets[?] (i.e., several ancient versions on clay tablets) are famous, and several books had been published about them. Several dates have been offered but the old dates of many sourcebooks seens to be outdated and incorrect. There are further difficulties: the 21 years span of the detailed observations of the planet Venus may or may not coincide with the reign of this king, because his name is not mentioned, only the Year of the Golden Throne[?]. A few sources, some printed almost a century ago, claim that the original text mentions an occultation of the Venus by the moon. It seems to me a misinterpretation because the original texts in the book of Erica Reiner[?] and D. Pingree[?]The Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa there is no such sentence. Prof. P.J. Huber's detailed calculations at this point also prefer 1659 for the fall of Babylon, based on the statistical probability of dating based on the planet's observations. He finds the presently accepted middle chronology too low from the astronomical point of view.

1690-1659 Samsu-ditana[?]

A text about the fall of Babylon[?] by the Hittites of Mursilis[?] I at the end of Samsuditana's reign tells about a twin eclipse is crucial for a correct Babylonian chronology. (The reading of the word Babylon is uncertain but why should a Babylonian tablet refer to another city?). The pair of lunar and solar eclipses occurred in the month Shimanu[?] (Sivan[?]). Professor Peter J. Huber has computed several options that would satisfy the conditions of the detailed description. The lunar eclipse took place on February 9, 1659 BCE. It started at 4:43 and ended at 6:47. The latter was invisible which safisfies the record which tells that the setting moon was still eclipsed. The solar eclipse occurred on February 23, 1659. It started at 10:26, has its maximum at 11:45, and ended at 13:04. See Peter Huber, Astronomical dating of Babylon I and Ur III in Monographic Journals of the Near East (1982: 41).

The Assyrian kings[?] of this period are as follow:

Zuabu
Nuabu, son of Zuabu
Abazu, viceroy of Manishtusu of Akkad, son of Nuabu, died c. 2330
Belu or Tillu, son of Abazu, died c. 2309
Asarah, son of Belu, died c. 2288
Ititi
Enlil-kabkabu
Ushpia, son of Asarah, died c. 2267
Apiashal, the 17th tent-dweller king, son of Ushpia, died c. 2246
Halu, son of Apiashal, died c. 2226
Samanu, son of Halu, died c. 2205
Haianu, son of Samanu, died c. 2184
Ilu-mer, son of Haianu, died c. 2164
Iakmesi, son of Ilu-mer, died c. 2143
Azuzu or Uzuzu
Urda or Urdahi
Zariqum (c. 2116-?), viceroy of Amar-sin
Iakmeni, son of Iakmesi, died c. 2122
Iazkur-ilu, son of Iakmeni, died c. 2101
Ilu-kapkapi, son of Iazkur-ilu, died c. 2080
Aminu, son of Ilu-kapkapi, died, c. 2060
Sulili, son of Aminu, died c. 2039. End of the dynasty.


# #

# #

Disclaimer

Disclaimer:
Some material presented will contain links, quotes, ideologies, etc., the contents of which should be understood to first, in their whole, reflect the views or opinions of their editors, and second, are used in my personal research as "fair use" sources only, and not espousement one way or the other. Researching for 'truth' leads one all over the place...a piece here, a piece there. As a researcher, I hunt, gather and disassemble resources, trying to put all the pieces into a coherent and logical whole. I encourage you to do the same. And please remember, these pages are only my effort to collect all the pieces I can find and see if they properly fit into the 'reality aggregate'.

Personal Position

Personal Position:
I've come to realize that 'truth' boils down to what we 'believe' the facts we've gathered point to. We only 'know' what we've 'experienced' firsthand. Everything else - what we read, what we watch, what we hear - is what someone else's gathered facts point to and 'they' 'believe' is 'truth', so that 'truth' seems to change in direct proportion to newly gathered facts divided by applied plausibility. Though I believe there is 'truth', until someone celestial who 'knows' all the facts parts the heavens and throws us a scroll titled "Here Are ALL The Facts And Lies In The Order They Happened," I can't know for sure exactly what "the whole truth' on any given subject is, and what applies to me applies to everyone.
~Gail Bird Allen

# #

social-bar-article-content
fb-apps-ub-segment
 

Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation(Blackwell Sourcebooks in Ancient History)
Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation(Blackwell Sourcebooks in Ancient History) Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation

This book presents new translations of Mesopotamian and ancient Near Eastern historiographic texts, providing the reader with the primary sources for the history of the ancient Near East.

  • A primary source book presenting new translations of Mesopotamian and ancient Near Eastern historiographic texts, and other related materials.
  • Helps readers to understand the historical context of the Near East.
  • Covers the period from the earliest historical and literary texts (c.2700 B.C.) to the latest Hellenistic historians who comment on ancient Near Eastern history (c.250 B.C.)
  • Texts range from the code of Hammurabi to the Assyrian royal inscriptions.
  • A detailed commentary is provided on each text, placing it in its historical and cultural context.
  • Maps, illustrations and a chronological table help to orientate the reader.

From the Back Cover

This book provides the reader with the primary sources for the history of the ancient Near East. Covering the period from the earliest historical and literary texts (ca. 2700 BC) to the advent of Alexander the Great (331 BC), it presents new translations of Mesopotamian and ancient Near Eastern historiographic texts, and other related materials.

An opening chapter sets out the themes of the book and discusses the difficulties of translating cuneiform texts into English, as well as the difficulty of reconstructing ancient Near Eastern history from textual sources. Texts featured in the main body of the book range from the code of Hammurabi to the Assyrian royal inscriptions. For each text, a detailed commentary is provided, placing it in its historical and cultural context. A map helps to orient the reader.

Paperback: 468 pages
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell; 1 edition (July 21, 2006)

A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75 (Blackwell History of the Ancient World) A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75 (Blackwell History of the Ancient World)
A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75 (Blackwell History of the Ancient World) A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75

Provides a new narrative history of the ancient world, from the beginnings of civilization in the ancient Near East and Egypt to the fall of Constantinople

Written by an expert in the field, this book presents a narrative history of Babylon from the time of its First Dynasty (1880-1595) until the last centuries of the city’s existence during the Hellenistic and Parthian periods (ca. 331-75 AD). Unlike other texts on Ancient Near Eastern and Mesopotamian history, it offers a unique focus on Babylon and Babylonia, while still providing readers with an awareness of the interaction with other states and peoples. Organized chronologically, it places the various socio-economic and cultural developments and institutions in their historical context. The book also gives religious and intellectual developments more respectable coverage than books that have come before it.

A History of Babylon, 2200 BC – AD 75 teaches readers about the most important phase in the development of Mesopotamian culture. The book offers in-depth chapter coverage on the Sumero-Addadian Background, the rise of Babylon, the decline of the first dynasty, Kassite ascendancy, the second dynasty of Isin, Arameans and Chaldeans, the Assyrian century, the imperial heyday, and Babylon under foreign rule.

  • Focuses on Babylon and Babylonia
  • Written by a highly regarded Assyriologist
  • Part of the very successful Histories of the Ancient World series
  • An excellent resource for students, instructors, and scholars

A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75 is a profound text that will be ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses on Ancient Near Eastern and Mesopotamian history and scholars of the subject.

About the Author

Paul-Alain Beaulieu, PhD, is Professor of Assyriology at the University of Toronto. He is the author of several articles and books on the history and culture of Babylonia, as well as the greater spectrum of Mesopotamian history. He has been teaching Assyriology and Ancient Near Eastern History for more than twenty years.

Paperback: 312 pages
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell; 1 edition (February 5, 2018)

Sumeria: The Eastern Source of Western Civilisation Sumeria: The Eastern Source of Western Civilisation

Sumeria: The Eastern Source of Western Civilisation Sumeria:The Eastern Source of Western Civilisation

Who were the Sumerians, where did they come from, in which language did they write and speak in Mesopotamia? Why is it that the city of Ur mentioned in the bible and from where Abraham came, was in fact pronounced like Rome and Abraham himself was a Sumerian of many generations, mistakenly believed to come from Semite origins? These questions form the basis of a fascinating and stimulating analysis by Tay Efti. In his book he refers to previous research in the study of Sumeria and the latest genetic research as well as an analysis of the available linguistic material in the field of Sumerology. His challenging discoveries have significant implications and call for a re examination of the origins of Western Culture and indeed the cultural origins of humanity as a whole. The core assertions and values of European civilisations are most probably based on the achievements of Sumerians and Etruscans who themselves are related ethnically and through language. After defeat at the hands of pagan tribes, the Sumerians migrated to various lands to the south, to Europe and Asia bringing with them their knowledge and beliefs and disseminating their culture and thought throughout the known world. Tay Efti maintains that the Sumerians did not disappear but moved to new lands and adapted their culture and knowledge to new circumstances, sustaining and transmitting their values into new environments which can be proved to form the basis of Western culture and civilisation.

Paperback: 226 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (February 18, 2016)

The Urantia Book The Urantia Book
The Urantia Book The Urantia Book

Love

Love is truly contagious and eternally creative. (p. 2018) “Devote your life to proving that love is the greatest thing in the world.” (p. 2047) “Love is the ancestor of all spiritual goodness, the essence of the true and the beautiful.” (p. 2047) The Father’s love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man’s personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows. (p. 1289) The secret of a better civilization is bound up in the Master’s teachings of the brotherhood of man, the good will of love and mutual trust. (p. 2065)

Prayer

Prayer is not a technique of escape from conflict but rather a stimulus to growth in the very face of conflict. (p. 1002) The sincerity of any prayer is the assurance of its being heard. … (p. 1639) God answers man’s prayer by giving him an increased revelation of truth, an enhanced appreciation of beauty, and an augmented concept of goodness. (p. 1002) …Never forget that the sincere prayer of faith is a mighty force for the promotion of personal happiness, individual self-control, social harmony, moral progress, and spiritual attainment. (p. 999)

Suffering

There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. (p. 364) Mortals only learn wisdom by experiencing tribulation. (p. 556)

Angels

The angels of all orders are distinct personalities and are highly individualized. (p. 285) Angels....are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them. (p. 419)

Our Divine Destiny

If you are a willing learner, if you want to attain spirit levels and reach divine heights, if you sincerely desire to reach the eternal goal, then the divine Spirit will gently and lovingly lead you along the pathway of sonship and spiritual progress. (p. 381) …They who know that God is enthroned in the human heart are destined to become like him—immortal. (p. 1449) God is not only the determiner of destiny; he is man’s eternal destination. (p. 67)

Family

Almost everything of lasting value in civilization has its roots in the family. (p. 765) The family is man’s greatest purely human achievement. ... (p. 939)

Faith

…Faith will expand the mind, ennoble the soul, reinforce the personality, augment the happiness, deepen the spirit perception, and enhance the power to love and be loved. (p. 1766) “Now, mistake not, my Father will ever respond to the faintest flicker of faith.” (p. 1733)

History/Science

The story of man’s ascent from seaweed to the lordship of earthly creation is indeed a romance of biologic struggle and mind survival. (p. 731) 2,500,000,000 years ago… Urantia was a well developed sphere about one tenth its present mass. … (p. 658) 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of Urantia [Earth] history. (p. 660) 450,000,000 years ago the transition from vegetable to animal life occurred. (p. 669) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years. (p. 707) About five hundred thousand years ago…there were almost one-half billion primitive human beings on earth. … (p. 741) Adam and Eve arrived on Urantia, from the year A.D. 1934, 37,848 years ago. (p. 828)

From the Inside Flap

What’s Inside?

Parts I and II

God, the inhabited universes, life after death, angels and other beings, the war in heaven.

Part III

The history of the world, science and evolution, Adam and Eve, development of civilization, marriage and family, personal spiritual growth.

Part IV

The life and teachings of Jesus including the missing years. AND MUCH MORE…

Excerpts

God, …God is the source and destiny of all that is good and beautiful and true. (p. 1431) If you truly want to find God, that desire is in itself evidence that you have already found him. (p. 1440) When man goes in partnership with God, great things may, and do, happen. (p. 1467)

The Origin of Human Life, The universe is not an accident... (p. 53) The universe of universes is the work of God and the dwelling place of his diverse creatures. (p. 21) The evolutionary planets are the spheres of human origin…Urantia [Earth] is your starting point. … (p. 1225) In God, man lives, moves, and has his being. (p. 22)

The Purpose of Life, There is in the mind of God a plan which embraces every creature of all his vast domains, and this plan is an eternal purpose of boundless opportunity, unlimited progress, and endless life. (p. 365) This new gospel of the kingdom… presents a new and exalted goal of destiny, a supreme life purpose. (p. 1778)

Jesus, The religion of Jesus is the most dynamic influence ever to activate the human race. (p. 1091) What an awakening the world would experience if it could only see Jesus as he really lived on earth and know, firsthand, his life-giving teachings! (p. 2083)

Science, Science, guided by wisdom, may become man’s great social liberator. (p. 909) Mortal man is not an evolutionary accident. There is a precise system, a universal law, which determines the unfolding of the planetary life plan on the spheres of space. (p. 560)

Life after Death, God’s love is universal… He is “not willing that any should perish.” (p. 39) Your short sojourn on Urantia [Earth]…is only a single link, the very first in the long chain that is to stretch across universes and through the eternal ages. (p. 435) …Death is only the beginning of an endless career of adventure, an everlasting life of anticipation, an eternal voyage of discovery. (p. 159)

About the Author

The text of The Urantia Book was provided by one or more anonymous contributors working with a small staff which provided editorial and administrative support during the book's creation. The book bears no particular credentials (from a human viewpoint), relying instead on the power and beauty of the writing itself to persuade the reader of its authenticity.

Leather Bound: 2097 pages
Publisher: Urantia Foundation; Box Lea edition (August 25, 2015)

The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character (Phoenix Books) The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character (Phoenix Books)

The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character (Phoenix Books) The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character

The Sumerians, the pragmatic and gifted people who preceded the Semites in the land first known as Sumer and later as Babylonia, created what was probably the first high civilization in the history of man, spanning the fifth to the second millenniums B.C. This book is an unparalleled compendium of what is known about them.

Professor Kramer communicates his enthusiasm for his subject as he outlines the history of the Sumerian civilization and describes their cities, religion, literature, education, scientific achievements, social structure, and psychology. Finally, he considers the legacy of Sumer to the ancient and modern world.

"There are few scholars in the world qualified to write such a book, and certainly Kramer is one of them. . . . One of the most valuable features of this book is the quantity of texts and fragments which are published for the first time in a form available to the general reader. For the layman the book provides a readable and up-to-date introduction to a most fascinating culture. For the specialist it presents a synthesis with which he may not agree but from which he will nonetheless derive stimulation."—American Journal of Archaeology

"An uncontested authority on the civilization of Sumer, Professor Kramer writes with grace and urbanity."—Library Journal

Paperback: 372 pages
Publisher: University of Chicago Press; Revised ed. edition (February 15, 1971)

Sumeria: The Earliest Western Civilization Sumeria: The Earliest Western Civilization

Sumeria: The Earliest Western Civilization Sumeria: The Earliest Western Civilization

Sumer was the first ancient urban civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia, modern-day southern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages, and arguably the first civilization in the world. Proto-writing in the region dates back to c. 3500 BC. The earliest texts come from the cities of Uruk and Jemdet Nasr and date back to 3300 BC; early cuneiform writing emerged in 3000 BC. Modern historians have suggested that Sumer was first permanently settled between c. 5500 and 4000 BC by a West Asian people who spoke the Sumerian language (pointing to the names of cities, rivers, basic occupations, etc., as evidence), a language isolate. These conjectured, prehistoric people are now called "proto-Euphrateans" or "Ubaidians", and are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia (Assyria). The Ubaidians (though never mentioned by the Sumerians themselves) are assumed by modern-day scholars to have been the first civilizing force in Sumer, draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery. However, some scholars contest the idea of a Proto-Euphratean language or one substrate language. It has been suggested by them and others, that the Sumerian language was originally that of the hunter and fisher peoples, who lived in the marshland and theEastern Arabia littoral region, and were part of the Arabian bifacial culture. Reliable historical records begin much later; there are none in Sumer of any kind that have been dated before Enmebaragesi (c. 26th century BC). Professor Juris Zarins believes the Sumerians were settled along the coast of Eastern Arabia, today's Persian Gulf region, before it flooded at the end of the Ice Age. Sumerian civilization took form in the Uruk period (4th millennium BC), continuing into the Jemdat Nasr and Early Dynastic periods. During the 3rd millennium BC, a close cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians, who spoke a language isolate, andAkkadian-speakers, which included widespread bilingualism. The Sumerian culture seems to have appeared as a fully formed civilization, with no pre-history. This book present a thorough history and background of the Sumerian civilization. This book is designed to be an overview of the topic and provide you with the structured knowledge to familiarize yourself with the topic at the most affordable price possible. The level of discussion is designed to be a more in-depth discussion than books such as “Computers for Dummies” but less technical than “The IEEE standards for the Core 2 Duo processor of the Intel Centrino chipset.” The accuracy and knowledge is of an international viewpoint as the edited articles represent the inputs of many knowledgeable individuals and some of the most currently available general knowledge on the topic based on the date of publication.

About the Author

The author has traveled extensively around the world studying world religions, cultural mythology and cultural anthropology. He has degrees from the University of Michigan and has worked in the corridors of power in Washington, DC and has informally studied the influence of belief systems on politics.

Paperback: 212 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1st Edition edition (May 30, 2016)

History Begins at Sumer History Begins at Sumer

History Begins at Sumer History Begins at Sumer

The very beginnings of man's history are recorded in the strange wedge-shaped marks inscribed upon the tablets of Sumer. Unearthed about at century ago from the mounds in Mesopotamia where they had lain for more than three thousand years, and deciphered only after decades of painstaking work, the tablets tell the story of civilization long forgotten, where culture as we know it was born. In this book, which won an award as the best foreign book of the year when it was published in France in 1957, Dr. Samuel Noah Kramer, America's foremost Sumerologist, describes twenty-seven "firsts" in human history and in this way constructs and intimate and vivid picture of everyday public and private life five thousand years ago.

Paperback: 247 pages
Publisher: Doubleday (1959)


#
footer-scroller

E-mail our link to a Friend Leave Us A Comment Follow Us On facebook Search 1000's of locally hosted pages!
footer-pages
sidebar-menu