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The Secret Cave: Discovering Lascaux The Secret Cave: Discovering Lascaux

The Secret Cave: Discovering Lascaux The Secret Cave: Discovering Lascaux

When did humans first start to draw their experiences? Caldecott medalist McCully celebrates “the very beginning of art” in this picture-book introduction to the prehistoric paintings of Lascaux. In 1940, a group of schoolboys in the south of France were searching for a cache of fabled gold when they stumbled across treasure of another kind: underground caverns decorated in a dazzling array of 17,000-year-old paintings and engravings. Uncertain about what they’d really seen, the boys brought in a teacher and then experts to confirm the cave art’s authenticity. Eventually, the French teens grew up to become caretakers of their incredible find. McCully’s text builds suspense in moment-by-moment descriptions of the boys slithering through narrow, dark, subterranean passageways, but it’s the images that have the biggest impact. The dramatically lit, mixed-media scenes evoke both the thrilling exploration and then the astonishing discoveries, reproduced in evocative, textured images. A final spread includes a photo of the boy heroes, as well as more background about the paintings and their preservation, and theories about how the ancient artists created their awe-inspiring works. Grades 1-3. --Gillian Engberg

Hardcover: 40 pages
Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux (BYR) (September 14, 2010)

The World Encyclopedia of Archaeology: The World's Most Significant Sites and Cultural Treasures The World Encyclopedia of Archaeology: The World's Most Significant Sites and Cultural Treasures

The World Encyclopedia of Archaeology: The World's Most Significant Sites and Cultural Treasures The World Encyclopedia of Archaeology

The definitive reference on the art and science of archaeology.

The World Encyclopedia of Archaeology is a sweeping exploration of archaeology that spans the globe from the beginning of recorded history and earlier. Here is a comprehensive view of the past as seen through the remnants of civilizations as they emerge and expand. The book begins by defining modern and ancient archaeology and gives the history of archaeology through the centuries. The different types of archaeology are explored, along with the techniques used for each and the problems, concerns and issues archaeologists face today.

The main section of the book details each region of the world, with the authoritative text revealing the fascinating history of important archaeological sites. This global perspective includes more than 700 illustrations. The atlas section with detailed maps provides placements throughout history.

Accurate, in-depth and up to date, The World Encyclopedia of Archaeology is compelling reading. It serves as an outstanding reference for professionals, researchers, history buffs and general readers.

The World Encyclopedia of Archaeology includes:

  • The first humans
  • Early hunter-gatherers and farmers
  • Megalithic builders
  • The Bronze Age
  • The Greeks and Romans
  • The Dark Ages
  • Ancient Mesopotamia
  • The Persian Empire
  • Nomadic states
  • The Indus civilization
  • China's dynasties and empires
  • Japan and Southeast Asian kingdoms
  • Early Mesoamericans
  • The Maya, Aztec and Inca
  • Ancient Egypt and the Upper Nile
  • Iron Age Africa
  • Australian Aborigines.

Highlights:

  • Compiled and written by an international team of archaeologists and historians
  • Reveals the most up-to-date findings and their significance
  • Organized geographically by region and key sites
  • Uncovers the world's most important sites and treasures
  • Spans all periods of human settlement
  • Locator guide to sites by country
  • List of World Heritage Sites
  • 18 special features focus on intriguing topics
  • Further readings and a glossary
  • More than 700 color illustrations
  • Attractive maps that show locations of key sites.

Hardcover: 400 pages
Publisher: Firefly Books; 1st Edition edition (October 11, 2007)

Lascaux: Movement, Space and Time Lascaux: Movement, Space and Time

Lascaux: Movement, Space and Time Lascaux: Movement, Space and Time

Norbert Aujoulat's definitive book on the Lascaux caves in France, the artistic masterpiece of the Old Stone Age, is the next best thing to being there. That's handy, since you can't go there yourself. Only a few scientists are permitted to visit Lascaux anymore, most eminent among them the author, who heads the parietal art department at the National Center of Prehistory. With impressive authority, he eIaborates the geology, archaeology, and ethology of the site so famously discovered by two spelunking teenagers in 1940, 18,000 years after the cave's heyday. In a way, the book is like the cave itself: a bit daunting, but enormously rewarding the effort. You must traverse great stalagmites of thoroughgoing scientific text translated from French, and are rewarded by enormous vistas of animals painted and scratched on the vast stone walls—262 color illustrations of the most important of the 1,963 images in the cave, including 915 animals and one human.

About the Author

Norbert Aujoulat is the departmental head of parietal art at the National Center of Prehistory in France.

Hardcover: 274 pages
Publisher: Harry N. Abrams; First English Edition edition (June 7, 2005)

The Urantia Book The Urantia Book
The Urantia Book The Urantia Book

Love

Love is truly contagious and eternally creative. (p. 2018) “Devote your life to proving that love is the greatest thing in the world.” (p. 2047) “Love is the ancestor of all spiritual goodness, the essence of the true and the beautiful.” (p. 2047) The Father’s love can become real to mortal man only by passing through that man’s personality as he in turn bestows this love upon his fellows. (p. 1289) The secret of a better civilization is bound up in the Master’s teachings of the brotherhood of man, the good will of love and mutual trust. (p. 2065)

Prayer

Prayer is not a technique of escape from conflict but rather a stimulus to growth in the very face of conflict. (p. 1002) The sincerity of any prayer is the assurance of its being heard. … (p. 1639) God answers man’s prayer by giving him an increased revelation of truth, an enhanced appreciation of beauty, and an augmented concept of goodness. (p. 1002) …Never forget that the sincere prayer of faith is a mighty force for the promotion of personal happiness, individual self-control, social harmony, moral progress, and spiritual attainment. (p. 999)

Suffering

There is a great and glorious purpose in the march of the universes through space. All of your mortal struggling is not in vain. (p. 364) Mortals only learn wisdom by experiencing tribulation. (p. 556)

Angels

The angels of all orders are distinct personalities and are highly individualized. (p. 285) Angels....are fully cognizant of your moral struggles and spiritual difficulties. They love human beings, and only good can result from your efforts to understand and love them. (p. 419)

Our Divine Destiny

If you are a willing learner, if you want to attain spirit levels and reach divine heights, if you sincerely desire to reach the eternal goal, then the divine Spirit will gently and lovingly lead you along the pathway of sonship and spiritual progress. (p. 381) …They who know that God is enthroned in the human heart are destined to become like him—immortal. (p. 1449) God is not only the determiner of destiny; he is man’s eternal destination. (p. 67)

Family

Almost everything of lasting value in civilization has its roots in the family. (p. 765) The family is man’s greatest purely human achievement. ... (p. 939)

Faith

…Faith will expand the mind, ennoble the soul, reinforce the personality, augment the happiness, deepen the spirit perception, and enhance the power to love and be loved. (p. 1766) “Now, mistake not, my Father will ever respond to the faintest flicker of faith.” (p. 1733)

History/Science

The story of man’s ascent from seaweed to the lordship of earthly creation is indeed a romance of biologic struggle and mind survival. (p. 731) 2,500,000,000 years ago… Urantia was a well developed sphere about one tenth its present mass. … (p. 658) 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of Urantia [Earth] history. (p. 660) 450,000,000 years ago the transition from vegetable to animal life occurred. (p. 669) From the year A.D. 1934 back to the birth of the first two human beings is just 993,419 years. (p. 707) About five hundred thousand years ago…there were almost one-half billion primitive human beings on earth. … (p. 741) Adam and Eve arrived on Urantia, from the year A.D. 1934, 37,848 years ago. (p. 828)

From the Inside Flap

What’s Inside?

Parts I and II

God, the inhabited universes, life after death, angels and other beings, the war in heaven.

Part III

The history of the world, science and evolution, Adam and Eve, development of civilization, marriage and family, personal spiritual growth.

Part IV

The life and teachings of Jesus including the missing years. AND MUCH MORE…

Excerpts

God, …God is the source and destiny of all that is good and beautiful and true. (p. 1431) If you truly want to find God, that desire is in itself evidence that you have already found him. (p. 1440) When man goes in partnership with God, great things may, and do, happen. (p. 1467)

The Origin of Human Life, The universe is not an accident... (p. 53) The universe of universes is the work of God and the dwelling place of his diverse creatures. (p. 21) The evolutionary planets are the spheres of human origin…Urantia [Earth] is your starting point. … (p. 1225) In God, man lives, moves, and has his being. (p. 22)

The Purpose of Life, There is in the mind of God a plan which embraces every creature of all his vast domains, and this plan is an eternal purpose of boundless opportunity, unlimited progress, and endless life. (p. 365) This new gospel of the kingdom… presents a new and exalted goal of destiny, a supreme life purpose. (p. 1778)

Jesus, The religion of Jesus is the most dynamic influence ever to activate the human race. (p. 1091) What an awakening the world would experience if it could only see Jesus as he really lived on earth and know, firsthand, his life-giving teachings! (p. 2083)

Science, Science, guided by wisdom, may become man’s great social liberator. (p. 909) Mortal man is not an evolutionary accident. There is a precise system, a universal law, which determines the unfolding of the planetary life plan on the spheres of space. (p. 560)

Life after Death, God’s love is universal… He is “not willing that any should perish.” (p. 39) Your short sojourn on Urantia [Earth]…is only a single link, the very first in the long chain that is to stretch across universes and through the eternal ages. (p. 435) …Death is only the beginning of an endless career of adventure, an everlasting life of anticipation, an eternal voyage of discovery. (p. 159)

About the Author

The text of The Urantia Book was provided by one or more anonymous contributors working with a small staff which provided editorial and administrative support during the book's creation. The book bears no particular credentials (from a human viewpoint), relying instead on the power and beauty of the writing itself to persuade the reader of its authenticity.

Leather Bound: 2097 pages
Publisher: Urantia Foundation; Box Lea edition (August 25, 2015)

The Splendour of Lascaux: Rediscovering the Greatest Treasure of Prehistoric Art The Splendour of Lascaux: Rediscovering the Greatest Treasure of Prehistoric Art

The Splendour of Lascaux: Rediscovering the Greatest Treasure of Prehistoric Art The Splendour of Lascaux: Rediscovering the Greatest Treasure of Prehistoric Art

On 12 September 1940, four teenagers accidentally stumbled across a hole in the hillside overlooking the village of Montignac, France. This opening the entrance to the Lascaux Cave and its network of chambers brought to light stunning 17,000- year-old paintings that vividly depicted a whole host of animals and figures. The discovery was to become one of the greatest archaeological finds of the 20th century. By the 1950s, however, the sheer number of visitors to the cave was causing the paintings to deteriorate, forcing the Ministry of Cultural Affairs finally to close it to the public in 1963. A key figure at Frances National Centre for Prehistory, Norbert Aujoulat has been fascinated by the Lascaux Cave ever since his first visit back in 1970 and has spent several years researching its ancient art. In successive chapters, he takes us on a thorough exploration of the historic site, detailing the geological and archaeological background of the area and guiding us through the individual chambers and paintings from their very beginnings right up to the present day. By capturing the beauty and essence of these world-renowned masterpieces, this richly illustrated and extensive study enables each and every one of us to experience the magical atmosphere of Lascaux for ourselves.

About the Author

Norbert Aujoulat is the Head of France's National Centre for Prehistory, and the world's expert on the caves at Lascaux.

Hardcover: 280 pages
Publisher: Thames & Hudson Ltd (May 30, 2005)

Dawn of Art: The Chauvet Cave (The Oldest Known Paintings in the World) Dawn of Art: The Chauvet Cave (The Oldest Known Paintings in the World)

Dawn of Art: The Chauvet Cave (The Oldest Known Paintings in the World) Dawn of Art: The Chauvet Cave (The Oldest Known Paintings in the World)

The prehistoric paintings recently discovered in Chauvet Cave are twice as old as the paintings of Lascaux, and show both considerable strength and beauty. The discoverers of Chauvet Cave are well known and respected speleologists who maintained impeccable records while exploring their find. It is they who tell the story of their explorations. In many ways this book is reminiscent of Carter's writings about Tutankhamen's tomb with a similar sense of awe at the millennia that had passed between the fabrication of the work and the modern discovery. The text is good, with a clean, easy-to-read translation by prehistorian Paul G. Bahn, who also provides the foreword. It is the photographs, however, that capture the real power and beauty of these paintings, bringing the humanity of their Stone Age artists close to home. Very highly recommended for any collection on art history or prehistory.?Mary Morgan Smith, Northland P.L., Pittsburgh Copyright 1996 Reed Business Information, Inc.

Hardcover: 135 pages
Publisher: Harry N. Abrams; FIRST EDITION IN ENGLISH edition (March 30, 1996)

The Cave Painters: Probing the Mysteries of the World's First Artists The Cave Painters: Probing the Mysteries of the World's First Artists

The Cave Painters: Probing the Mysteries of the World's First Artists The Cave Painters: Probing the Mysteries of the World's First Artists

The Cave Painters is a vivid introduction to the spectacular cave paintings of France and Spain—the individuals who rediscovered them, theories about their origins, their splendor and mystery.

Gregory Curtis makes us see the astonishing sophistication and power of the paintings and tells us what is known about their creators, the Cro-Magnon people of some 40,000 years ago. He takes us through various theories—that the art was part of fertility or hunting rituals, or used for religious purposes, or was clan mythology—examining the ways interpretations have changed over time. Rich in detail, personalities, and history, The Cave Painters is above all permeated with awe for those distant humans who developed—perhaps for the first time—both the ability for abstract thought and a profound and beautiful way to express it.

About the Author

Gregory Curtis is the author of Disarmed: The Story of the Venus de Milo. He was the editor of Texas Monthly from 1981 until 2000. His writing has appeared in The New York Times, The New York Times Magazine, Fortune, Time, and RollingStone, among other publications. A graduate of Rice University and San Francisco State College, he lives with his wife in Austin, Texas.

Paperback: 288 pages
Publisher: Anchor; Reprint edition (October 9, 2007)


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Painted Caves of Lascaux

from New World Encyclopedia

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Lascaux Cave Paintings
The painted caves of Lascaux in the Dordogne region of France are one of the most famed monuments of Ice Age art dating back about 17,000 years. An old legend says, there was an underground passage from the Montignak castle under the Vezer and the Lascaux estate with hidden treasures. Four teen-agers were looking for these treasures when on the 12th of September 1940 they had found a small entrance into a cave which concealed real riches - magnificent rock paintings dated by the late Palaeolithic. These are depictions of different animals (horses, bisons, deer, bulls and others) and unlike figures in other caves which, at first sight, look static and almost lifeless, those in Lascaux are full of motion and harmony. Abbot Glory had been working in the cave from 1952 up to 1963 and found more than 2000 depictions on its walls.

The painted caves of Lascaux in the Dordogne region of France are one of the most famed monuments of Ice Age art dating back about 17,000 years. An old legend says, there was an underground passage from the Montignak castle under the Vezer and the Lascaux estate with hidden treasures. Four teen-agers were looking for these treasures when on the 12th of September 1940 they had found a small entrance into a cave which concealed real riches - magnificent rock paintings dated by the late Palaeolithic. These are depictions of different animals (horses, bisons, deer, bulls and others) and unlike figures in other caves which, at first sight, look static and almost lifeless, those in Lascaux are full of motion and harmony. Abbot Glory had been working in the cave from 1952 up to 1963 and found more than 2000 depictions on its walls.
by Matthias Schulz - translated from the German by Paul Cohen

Lascaux

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Lascaux horse, stags and bulls
Lascaux - Horse, Stags and Bulls




Contents





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Lascaux Bear and Bulls
Lascaux cave painting of aurochs
Lascaux cave painting of aurochs

Discovered in 1940, Lascaux is a series of caves in southwestern France (near Montignac) that is famous for the numerous Paleolithic cave paintings contained on its walls. In 1979, the caves at Lascaux were designated a UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) World Heritage site, along with 147 prehistoric sites and 24 painted caves located in the Vézère Valley.

Due to concerns over deterioration of the paintings, the caves were closed to the public, and only qualified researchers were given permission to enter. A replica was constructed to allow visitors to experience and appreciate these magnificent Stone Age artworks, which link us to our ancestors of long ago, without endangering the original paintings.

History

Lascaux Plan
Map of Lascaux cave
Map of Lascaux cave

The Lascaux caves were discovered by chance on September 12, 1940 by seventeen year-old Marcel Ravidat, accompanied by three of his friends: Jacques Marsal, Georges Agnel, and Simon Coencas. Word traveled quickly, and it was not long before leading archaeologists were contacted. Abbé Henri Breuil, a prominent archaeologist, was one of the first to study the site, where he found bone fragments, oil lamps, and other artifacts, as well as the hundreds of paintings and engraved images.

There was a great deal of public interest in the paintings at Lascaux, and the caves drew a great number of visitors. Included among those fascinated by the art of "primitive" human beings was Pablo Picasso. To his amazement, however, the paintings produced thousands of years ago were not primitive in comparison to contemporary art. On leaving the cave he is said to have exclaimed "We have learned nothing in twelve thousand years."[1]

After World War II, the site entrance was enlarged and the floors lowered to accommodate the nearly 1,200 tourists per day who came to see the art of Paleolithic man. By 1955, the paintings had begun to show signs of deterioration due to the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled by visitors as well as moisture and other environmental changes that occurred when the caves were opened, and so the site was closed to the public in 1963. The paintings were restored, and are now monitored with state of the art technology. Unfortunately, though, fungi, molds, and bacteria have entered the caves and threaten to destroy the paintings and engravings.[2]

Soon after the caves were closed to the public, construction was begun on a painstakingly exact replica of a portion of the caves, located only 200 meters from the original caves. Called "Lascaux II," the replica opened in 1983. Copied down to the texture of the rock, this nearly identical replica allows a large number of people to experience the cave paintings without posing a threat to their longevity. Exact replicas of individual paintings are also displayed in the nearby Center of Prehistoric Art at Thot.

Inside the Caves of Lascaux

The Lascaux caves contain nearly 2,000 painted and engraved figures. There are animals, human figures, and abstract signs. Notably, though, there are no images of landscapes or vegetation.

The Great Hall of the Bulls

Lascaux Hall of the Bulls
Great Hall of the Bulls
Great Hall of the Bulls

Upon entering the caves, there is an initial steep slope, after which one comes into the Hall of the Bulls. The walls of this larger rotunda are covered with paintings of stags, bulls, and horses. Except for a small group of ochre stags, three red bovines, and four red horses, the figures are all painted in black.

Did you know?

There is a prehistoric cave painting of a "unicorn" in the Hall of Bulls

The first image in the Hall of the Bulls is that of "the Unicorn," named because of the way the two horns in profile view appear almost to be one large horn, like the mythical unicorn. In front of the "unicorn" is a herd of horses and an incompletely drawn bull. Three large aurochs, an extinct type of wild ox, can be found on the opposite side of the chamber. Most drawings in the Hall of the Bulls consist of pictorial representations of animals; there is no representation of foliage or landscape, and the only symbols present are groupings of black dots and variously colored dashes.

The Painted Gallery

Considered by some to be the pinnacle of Paleolithic cave art, the Painted Gallery is a continuation of the Great Hall of the Bulls.[3] The walls of the Painted Gallery depict numerous horses, aurochs, ibexes, as well as a stag at the entrance to the gallery and a bison at the back.

The Lateral Passage

Branching off to the right of the Great Hall of the Bulls is the Lateral Passage, which connects the Great Hall of the Bulls to the rest of the chambers. The ceiling in this passage is fairly low, even after excavation of the floor after World War II. The walls in this area have deteriorated due to corrosion predating the site's discovery, leaving few paintings or engravings readily visible. It is thought that paintings and engravings once covered the entire surface of this gallery as well as the other galleries.[4]

The Chamber of Engravings

Lascaux Engraved Stag
Engraved stag
Engraved stag

Off the right of the Lateral Passage is the Chamber of Engravings, a smaller rotunda filled with over 600 engravings and paintings. The engravings predominate, and are separated into three sections. On the lower third of the walls are aurochs, above them are deer, and covering the entire dome are horses. There is more overlapping of figures here than in any other chamber, making it difficult to accurately make out the various figures.

The Shaft of the Dead Man

Lascaux - The Shaft of the Dead Man
Scene of the Dead Man
Scene of the Dead Man

Several meters lower than the back of the Chamber of Engravings is the Shaft of the Dead Man. Here is found the only figure of a human being on the walls of Lascaux. This painting, entitled "Scene of the Dead Man," is a triptych of a bison, a man, and what appears to be a rhinoceros. The man appears to have had a confrontation with the bison, and is pictured lying prone on the ground with a broken spear next to him. To the left of the spear lies what looks like a stick with a bird on the top, a fact made more significant by the observation that the man also appears to have a bird-shaped head. Also present is the hook sign, which may represent a spear thrower.

The Main Gallery

Lascaux - Swimming Stags
Copy of the "Swimming Stags" in the Lascaux cave,
Musée d'Aquitaine, Bordeaux, France
Copy of the "Swimming Stags" in the Lascaux cave,
Musée d'Aquitaine, Bordeaux, France

Off to the left of the Chamber of Engravings is the Main Gallery, a series of chambers that descend in size. Within these chambers are several panels, mostly found on the left wall, and each having distinct characteristics. "The Panel of the Imprint," for example, contains horses, bison, and square symbols, while the "Black Cow Panel" has a single black cow with seven ibexes. Some of the square symbols are polychromatic, using shades of yellow, red, and violets to divide the larger square into smaller squares. In the rear of the Main Gallery, the Panel of the Back-to-Back Bison is the most typical example of three dimensional perspective. One bison overlaps the other, and reserves (small areas left blank) surround the rear bison as well as the back limbs of each animal. The three dimensional effect is heightened by the fact that the painting is situated in an area where the rock wall curves out on either side. On the right wall there is only one group of stags, named the "Swimming Stags." Only the heads and shoulders of the stags are visible.

The Chamber of Felines

Lascaux - Chamber of Felines
Chamber of Felines
Chamber of Felines

Past the Main Gallery, deep in the cave, is the Chamber of Felines. Here, as in the other chambers, are horses and bison, but unlike other areas, there are felines, as well as an absence of aurochs. This chamber is similar to the Chamber of Engravings in that it contains more engravings than paintings. The figures in this chamber have been poorly preserved, and are sometimes difficult to make out. At the end of the chamber is a group of three sets of two red dots, which may suggest a means of marking the end of the sanctuary.

Technique and Purpose

The cave painters at Lascaux, like those of other sites, used naturally occurring pigments to create their paintings. They may have used brushes, though none were found at the site, but it is equally as likely that they used mats of moss or hair, or simply chunks of raw color. Some parts of the paintings were painted with an airbrushing technique; hollow bones stained with color have been found in the caves. Since the caves have no natural light, torches and stone lamps filled with animal fat were used to illuminate the caves.

Research places most of the paintings around 15,000 B.C.E., although the subject matter and style of certain figures suggests that they may be somewhat more recent, perhaps only 10,000 B.C.E.[4] Thus, although containing some of the most famous Paleolithic artworks in the world, Lascaux does not contain the oldest; the Chauvet Cave discovered in 1994 in the Ardèche region of southern France contains paintings dating back as far as 32,000 B.C.E.

The true purpose of the images found in all these caves is a matter of debate. Due to the inaccessibility of many of the chambers and the size and grandeur of the paintings at Lascaux, many believe that the caves served as sacred spaces or ceremonial meeting places.[5]Animals may have been drawn in order to ensure a successful hunt, or they may have been drawn afterwards to provide a resting place for the spirits of the slain animals—a practice that would point to an animistic religion. Others argue that the cave paintings were nothing more than a type of graffiti drawn by adolescent boys, a theory partially supported by the measurements of hand prints and footprints found in Paleolithic caves.[6]

The "Shaft of the Dead Man" has also sparked numerous theories as to its purpose. Some believe that the bird-like head of the man is evidence of shamanism, and that the caves may have served to facilitate trance-like states (particularly if the caves contained high levels of carbon dioxide). Others argue that the painting is narrative, and describes an event that took place in life or in a dream.

As for the true meaning of the paintings, the number, style, and location of paintings (both in Lascaux and other nearby sites) have led most experts to believe that the images served some sort of spiritual or ceremonial purpose. It is also possible that more than one theory has validity; for example, adolescent boys may have added their marks to the painted walls made by adults in preparation for the hunt. Whatever their original purpose may have been, cave paintings now serve as a priceless link between modern and Paleolithic man.

Notes

  1.  Gregory Curtis, The Cave Painters: Probing the Mysteries of the World's First Artists (Anchor, 2007).
  2.  International Committee for the Preservation of Lascaux,  Famous World Heritage Site in Peril. Retrieved March 16, 2010.
  3.   The Lascaux Caves Sacred Destinations. Retrieved July 16, 2007.
  4. ↑ 4.0 4.1  The Cave of Lascaux. French Ministry of Culture and Communication. Retrieved July 16, 2007.
  5.  2000.  Lascaux ca. 15,000 B.C.E. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved July 16, 2007.
  6.  William H. McNeill,  Secrets of the Cave Paintings. The New York Review of Books, 2006. Retrieved July 16, 2007.

References


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Disclaimer

Disclaimer:
Some material presented will contain links, quotes, ideologies, etc., the contents of which should be understood to first, in their whole, reflect the views or opinions of their editors, and second, are used in my personal research as "fair use" sources only, and not espousement one way or the other. Researching for 'truth' leads one all over the place...a piece here, a piece there. As a researcher, I hunt, gather and disassemble resources, trying to put all the pieces into a coherent and logical whole. I encourage you to do the same. And please remember, these pages are only my effort to collect all the pieces I can find and see if they properly fit into the 'reality aggregate'.

Personal Position

Personal Position:
I've come to realize that 'truth' boils down to what we 'believe' the facts we've gathered point to. We only 'know' what we've 'experienced' firsthand. Everything else - what we read, what we watch, what we hear - is what someone else's gathered facts point to and 'they' 'believe' is 'truth', so that 'truth' seems to change in direct proportion to newly gathered facts divided by applied plausibility. Though I believe there is 'truth', until someone celestial who 'knows' all the facts parts the heavens and throws us a scroll titled "Here Are ALL The Facts And Lies In The Order They Happened," I can't know for sure exactly what "the whole truth' on any given subject is, and what applies to me applies to everyone.
~Gail Bird Allen

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